Directions(1-10): Read the following passage and answer the questions that follows.
No very satisfactory account of the mechanism that caused the formation of the ocean basins has yet been given. The traditional view supposes that the upper mantle of the earth behaves as a liquid when it is subjected to small forces for long periods and that differences in temperature under oceans and continents are sufficient to produce convection in the mantle of the earth with rising convection currents under the mid-ocean ridges and sinking currents under the continents. Theoretically, this convection would carry the continental plates along as though they were on a conveyor belt and would provide the forces needed to produce the split that occurs along the ridge. This view may be correct: it has the advantage that the currents are driven by temperature differences that themselves depend on the position of the continents. Such a back-coupling, in which the position of the moving plate has an impact on the forces that move it, could produce complicated and varying motions. On the other hand, the theory is implausible because convection does not normally occur along lines, and it certainly does not occur along lines broken by frequent offsets or changes in direction, as the ridge is. Also it is difficult to see how the theory applies to the plate between the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the ridge in the Indian Ocean. This plate is growing on both sides, and since there is no intermediate trench, the two ridges must be moving apart. It would be odd if the rising convection currents kept exact pace with them. An alternative theory is that the sinking part of the plate, which is denser than the hotter surrounding mantle, pulls the rest of the plate after it. Again it is difficult to see how this applies to the ridge in the South Atlantic, where neither the African nor the American plate has a sinking part. Another possibility is that the sinking plate cools the neighboring mantle and produces convection currents that move the plates. This last theory is attractive because it gives some hope of explaining the enclosed seas, such as the Sea of Japan. These seas have a typical oceanic floor, except that the floor is overlaid by several kilometers of sediment. Their floors have probably been sinking for long periods. It seems possible that a sinking current of cooled mantle material on the upper side of the plate might be the cause of such deep basins. The enclosed seas are an important feature of the earth‘s surface, and seriously require explanation because, in addition to the enclosed seas that are developing at present behind island arcs, there are a number of older ones of possibly similar origin, such as the Gulf of Mexico, the Black Sea, and perhaps the North Sea.
- According to the traditional view of the origin of the ocean basins, which of the following is sufficient to move the continental plates?
Increases in sedimentation on ocean floorsSpreading of ocean trenchesMovement of mid-ocean ridgesSinking of ocean basinsDifferences in temperature under oceans and continentsOption E
- It can be inferred from the passage that, of the following, the deepest sediments would be found in the
Indian OceanBlack SeaMid-AtlanticSouth AtlanticPacificOption B
- The author refers to a “conveyor belt” in order to
illustrate the effects of convection in the mantleshow how temperature differences depend on the positions of the continentsdemonstrate the linear nature of the Mid-Atlantic Ridgedescribe the complicated motions made possible by back-couplingaccount for the rising currents under certain mid-ocean ridgesOption A
- The author regards the traditional view of the origin of the oceans with
slight apprehensionabsolute indifferenceindignant angercomplete disbeliefguarded skepticismOption E
- According to the passage, which of the following are separated by a plate that is growing on both sides?
The Pacific Ocean and the Sea of JapanThe South Atlantic Ridge and the North Sea RidgeThe Gulf of Mexico and the South Atlantic RidgeThe Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Indian Ocean RidgeThe Black Sea and the Sea of JapanOption D
- Which of the following, if it could be demonstrated, would most support the traditional view of ocean formation?
Convection usually occurs along lines.The upper mantle behaves as a dense solid.Sedimentation occurs at a constant rate.Sinking plates cool the mantle.Island arcs surround enclosed seas.Option A
- According to the passage, the floor of the Black Sea can best be compared to a
rapidly moving conveyor beltslowly settling foundationrapidly expanding balloonviolently erupting volcanoslowly eroding mountainOption B
- Which of the following titles would best describe the content of the passage?
A Description of the Oceans of the WorldSeveral Theories of Ocean Basin FormationThe Traditional View of the OceansConvection and Ocean CurrentsTemperature Differences among the Oceans of the WorldOption B
- What, according to the passage, is the most appropriate synonym of “complicated”:
- What, according to the passage, is the most appropriate antonym of “convection”:
emeritusincumbentindecorouselidableAll are CorrectOption B
tortuouslabyrinthinestraightinvolvedAll are CorrectOption C
occasionalcaducousdeciduousvolatileAll are CorrectOption D
compensatemanifestequivocalburyAll are CorrectOption A
incitementintimidationfillipcoaxAll are CorrectOption B
- (A) As the election moves to the last three phases, /(B) the BJP and its opponents appear to be fine-tuning their strategies. /(C) The minimum income guarantee scheme promised by the Congress in its manifesto has not /(D) become a defining topic, more to the party’s disappointment.
more = much
- (A) In light of the Congress’s dismal defeat in the 17th general election, Congress president Rahul Gandhi’s offer /(B) to resign from his party post at the Congress Working Committee on Saturday was on expected lines. /(C) What came as surprise is the indication that he was seemingly unmoved by the CWC resolution /(D) that urged him to continue as president and restructure the party.
as surprise = as a surprise
- (A) A dynasty-free Congress /(B) will surely invigorate the Indian polity, /(C) but a Congress-free polity can /(D) well prove dangerous for Indian democracy.
can = could
- (A) The family is projected /(B) as the party’s emotional currency /(C) with the public and the Gandhi surname is /(D) invoked to hark back to the formative years of modern India.
- (A) He must sustain and embellish /(B) his new slogan with his characteristic tenacity, /(C) without slackening over the question of communal harmony, /(D) going by experience.
over = on
- Any leader of our country must saw that we had to be clear about the Britain we wanted before we could be clear about the Brexit we negotiated – and it is frustration at that failure that has allowed Farage to move in from the wings.
must have seen thatshould have seen thatmust see to whichcould have seen thatNo Correction RequiredOption B
- The something is that never before has a new British prime minister likely to be chosen by the grassroots members of the ruling political party.
is to chooseto be chosen bybeen chosen bybe chosenNo Correction RequiredOption C
- According to a new book by Paul Dolan, a professor of behavioural science at the London School of Economics, marriage and children do not – despite several millennia of literature claiming otherwise – give women the sought after happy ending.
given the soughtgive the sought to womengiven women the soughtgiven that women the soughtNo Correction RequiredOption E
- Missouri’s misogynistic laws already don’t trust women to make their own decisions – they mandate that any woman seeking an abortion in the state has to come to a clinic, request the procedure, and then go home and think about it for three days before it can be legally proffered.
is legal to be profferedis to be legally profferedis legally profferedcould be legally profferedNo Correction RequiredOption E
- Uber launches a ride service in the US, which means that passengers can request that a driver refrain from talking to them during their trip.
launched a quiet ridehas launched a quiet rideis to launch a quiet rideis launching a quiet rideNo Correction RequiredOption B
- He watched her pour into the measure and thence into the jug rich white milk, not hers. Old shrunken paps. She _______________ again a measureful and a tilly. Old and secret she had entered from a morning world, maybe a messenger. She praised the goodness of the milk, pouring it out. Crouching by a patient cow at daybreak in the lush field, a witch on her toadstool, her wrinkled fingers quick at the squirting dugs. They _______________ about her whom they knew, dewsilky cattle. Silk of the kine and poor old woman, names given her in old times.
gushed, flushedpoured, lowedpaid, shrilledmade,toppedAll are CorrectOption B
- His hands plunged and _______________ in his trunk while he called for a clean handkerchief. God, we’ll simply have to dress the character. I want _______________ gloves and green boots. Contradiction. Do I contradict myself? Very well then, I contradict myself. Mercurial Malachi. A limp black missile flew out of his talking hands.
combed, crimsonransacked, russetrummaged, puceforaged, ruddyAll are CorrectOption E
- It must be a movement then, an actuality of the possible as possible. Aristotle’s phrase formed itself within the _______________ verses and floated out into the _______________ silence of the library of Saint Genevieve where he had read, sheltered from the sin of Paris, night by night.
blabbed, mechanicalchattered, sketchycajoled, negligentgabbled, studiousAll are CorrectOption D
- They followed the winding path down to the _______________ . Buck Mulligan stood on a stone, in shirtsleeves, his unclipped tie rippling over his shoulder. A young man clinging to a _______________ of rock near him, moved slowly frogwise his green legs in the deep jelly of the water.
creek, spurrivulet, hindranceestuary, curbcreek, encumbranceAll are CorrectOption A
- Buck Mulligan sat down to unlace his boots. An elderly man shot up near the spur of rock a blowing red face. He _______________ up by the stones, water glistening on his pate and on its garland of grey hair, water rilling over his chest and _______________ and spilling jets out of his black sagging loincloth.
brawny, gutscrambled, paunchmuscular, tripedexterous, rumenAll are CorrectOption B
Directions(11-15): In the passage given below there are 5 blanks. Every blank has four alternative words given in options (A),(B),(C), and (D). You have to tell which word is APPROPRIATE according to the context. If all are appropriate then mark your answer as “E”.
In the fourth phase of the 17th Lok Sabha election, 72 constituencies across nine States and including parts of Anantnag in Jammu and Kashmir went to the polls on Monday. The BJP had won 45 of these 71 seats in the 16th Lok Sabha and its allies held another 11, indicating how critical this phase was for the ___11___ dispensation. In the remaining phases too this pattern will continue. With the fourth phase, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, two States in which the BJP and the Congress are in ___12___ contests, started voting. In 2014 the BJP had won all 25 seats in Rajasthan, and in Madhya Pradesh, 27 out of 29 seats. Violence in parts of West Bengal cast a shadow on the process and pointed to a ___13___ situation in the State that could lead to more violence in the coming phases. The BJP’s designs are to pick up a good number of seats in West Bengal to partly ___14___ for the losses that it is certain to face in the Hindi heartland where it had peaked in 2014. The Election Commission has ordered an FIR against the BJP’s Asansol candidate Babul Supriyo for trespassing into a polling booth and intimidating an officer. The EC must remain alert to ensure that polling remains free of violence and ___15___. In Maharashtra and Odisha, voting has ended. Five constituencies in Bihar and 13 in Uttar Pradesh voted in the fourth phase.
Directions(16-20): In each of the following questions there are sentences. There is an error in one of the parts. Mark the option which contains error parts as your answer. If no part contains error mark option E as your answer.
Directions(21-25): Which of the phrases (A), (B), (C), (D) given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold to make the sentence grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is, mark (E) ie ‘No correction required’ as the answer.
Direction (21-25): In each question below a sentence is given with two blanks in each. Each question is followed by four options with two words in each. You have to select that option as your answer which can fill both the blanks of the sentence.