English: Cloze Test for Upcoming Exams – Set 127

Directions: In the passage given below there are 10 blanks. Every blank has four alternative words given in options (A),(B),(C), and (D). You have to tell which option is appropriate according to the context. If all are appropriate then mark your answer as “E”.

On the campaign trail, Donald Trump’s trade policy was an alarming mixture of ____1____ complaints and fierce threats of protectionist retaliation. But the world has been in the dark about how much of this rhetoric his administration might turn into reality. A ____2____ of light came on March 1st as the administration’s trade-strategy document was presented to Congress. Washington wonks see the hand of Peter Navarro, Mr Trump’s trade adviser and author of a book (and film) called “Death by China”. Robert Lighthizer, the nominee for the United States Trade Representative (USTR), has not yet been confirmed.

Little is new in the document’s promises of “ new and better trade deals” or of strict enforcement of American trade laws. But a preference for bilateral trade deals over multilateral ones is a change of____3____. And the tone is certainly confrontational: “It is time for a more aggressive approach.” The document also gives an indication of how a Trump administration might take a trade fight to China: by using sections 201 and 301 of the Trade Act of 1974.

The first weapon, section 201, allows tariffs to be imposed as a safeguard to protect American producers from a ____4____of imports. Affected companies must show that they have suffered “serious injury”, but need not prove any unfair practice by the foreign firms.

Mr Trump’s trade team may be ____5____ the experience of the Reagan administration, which in 1983 slapped an extra 45% tariff on imports of motorcycles in response to a petition from Harley-Davidson, an American manufacturer. Mr Trump has referred to this as having had a “big impact”. But as a trade-enforcement tool, section 201 has drawbacks. Proving a case can be tricky, since there is a high legal threshold for proving injury and the____6____ , the International Trade Commission, is an agency respected for its independence. (The Department of Commerce, which makes rulings on anti-dumping, is seen as a softer touch.) Moreover, indiscriminate use of the provision will provoke other countries into retaliation. In 2002 America tried to slap tariffs of 30% on steel in ____7____ of the World Trade Organisation’s (WTO) rules, but was forced to retract when faced with the threat of $2.2bn-worth of tit-for-tat tariffs on exports ranging from sunglasses to orange juice.

The second weapon in the____8____, section 301, is “scarier” than 201, says Kim Elliott, a trade expert. “The grounds for taking action are less well-defined.” It allows the administration to take action against “unfair” trade practices. America used to invoke this section to hit its trade opponents before disputes could be dealt with by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the WTO’s____9____.

Since the establishment of the WTO in 1995, the section has fallen into disuse, on the understanding that it could be implemented if a WTO ruling went in America’s favour and authorised tariffs on a trading partner that was breaking the rules. The fear, however, is that this week’s mention of section 301 implies the Trump administration might start going outside the global rules of the WTO system. Intensifying the alarm is that an entire section of the strategy document focuses on defending American “national ____10____ over trade policy”. It also emphasises that a WTO ruling against America need not automatically lead to a change in American law or practice.

  1. sparkling
    All are Correct
    Option E


  2. resolve
    All are Correct
    Option D


  3. separate
    All are Correct
    Option C


  4. surge
    All are Correct
    Option A


  5. memory
    All are Correct
    Option E


  6. adjudicator
    All are Correct
    Option A


  7. obedience
    All are Correct
    Option B


  8. repertory
    All are Correct
    Option B


  9. descendant
    All are Correct
    Option D


  10. dominion
    All are Correct
    Option E


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