Directions(1-10): In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.
Smartphones have emerged as the (1) of mankind’s quest for shrinking technologies. They embody the realization of a simple (2) – that computing devices would do more and cost less. This realization has been responsible for modern society’s (3) transformations in communication, governance, and knowledge distribution. The launch of the iPhone in 2007 is often (4) with ushering in an era of Smartphone. Ever since, the world’s best tech R&D has focused on increasing the capabilities of these devices. And as a result, less than a decade later, we have sub-hundred dollar Smartphone. The low-cost Smartphone has found an enthusiastic and insatiable market in developing countries, especially Asia. India is no (5) to the Asian narrative – Micromax, Spice, and Lava (low cost Smartphone manufacturers) are household names in the Indian Smartphone market, which accounted for 65% of internet traffic in 2014. The Indian Prime Minister, carrying the twin aspirations of (6) the growth of indigenous manufacturing and bridging the digital divide, launched the “Digital India” and “Make in India” campaigns last year. During his US visit, Google, Apple, Microsoft, Facebook extended their support to the campaigns’ vision. The campaigns outline the government’s elaborate initiatives to, inter alia, bridge the digital divide and build indigenous manufacturing capacity. While all these developments (7) well for the indigenous smartphone, there remain some serious concerns affecting the growth of the industry – for instance, patent infringement litigations and the (8) of clear legal and regulatory solutions. From the state of the industry and its implications, it can be concluded that: first, growing access to smartphones has been influenced by their (9) affordability; second, smartphones are an excellent example of technology for development (UNDP, 2001) and a (10) of access to knowledge; and third, domestic smartphone production has occurred in an imprecise legal and regulatory environment.
Synonym means something having a same or nearly the same meaning. Antithesis stands for a thing that is something opposite. Exponent means a person who supports and idea or belief. Beacon stands for a signal, light or fire, though it can also be figuratively used as in beacon of hope. Exemplar means an ideal model.
Premise means a statement or proposition from which another is inferred or follows as a conclusion. Hypothesis means something more than a wild guess but less than a well-established theory. Concept is an abstract idea.
The modern society’s transformation in communication and governance etc is neither startling nor subtle. It’s not even dramatic or miraculous. It’s logical and based on science and intense.
No exception is used to state that something is no different from usual.
Reinvigorate means to give new energy or strength to something but the context is about the commencement of indigenous manufacturing. Hence, it’s not about giving new energy to something. Stunting is to stop the growth of something. Championing stands for defending the cause of something.
Bode well is a phrase which implies a favourable outcome.
Dilemma means a situation in which a difficult choice has to be made between two or more alternatives, especially ones that are equally undesirable.
Stunning is usually used for something beautiful. Phenomenal means exceptional or remarkable.
Smartphones have the made it convenient for the people to access technology. It is not a promoter but a medium in itself. The word instigator also means to initiate something but have negative connotations. Hence, the word facilitator that stands for a thing that makes something easier for others is the most suitable response.