English: Cloze Test for Upcoming Exams – Set 175

Directions(1-10): In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

Smartphones have emerged as the (1) of mankind’s quest for shrinking technologies. They embody the realization of a simple (2) – that computing devices would do more and cost less. This realization has been responsible for modern society’s (3) transformations in communication, governance, and knowledge distribution. The launch of the iPhone in 2007 is often (4) with ushering in an era of Smartphone. Ever since, the world’s best tech R&D has focused on increasing the capabilities of these devices. And as a result, less than a decade later, we have sub-hundred dollar Smartphone. The low-cost Smartphone has found an enthusiastic and insatiable market in developing countries, especially Asia. India is no (5) to the Asian narrative – Micromax, Spice, and Lava (low cost Smartphone manufacturers) are household names in the Indian Smartphone market, which accounted for 65% of internet traffic in 2014. The Indian Prime Minister, carrying the twin aspirations of (6) the growth of indigenous manufacturing and bridging the digital divide, launched the “Digital India” and “Make in India” campaigns last year. During his US visit, Google, Apple, Microsoft, Facebook extended their support to the campaigns’ vision. The campaigns outline the government’s elaborate initiatives to, inter alia, bridge the digital divide and build indigenous manufacturing capacity. While all these developments (7) well for the indigenous smartphone, there remain some serious concerns affecting the growth of the industry – for instance, patent infringement litigations and the (8) of clear legal and regulatory solutions. From the state of the industry and its implications, it can be concluded that: first, growing access to smartphones has been influenced by their (9) affordability; second, smartphones are an excellent example of technology for development (UNDP, 2001) and a (10) of access to knowledge; and third, domestic smartphone production has occurred in an imprecise legal and regulatory environment.

  1. synonym
    antithesis
    exemplar
    exponent
    beacon
    Option C
    Synonym means something having a same or nearly the same meaning. Antithesis stands for a thing that is something opposite. Exponent means a person who supports and idea or belief. Beacon stands for a signal, light or fire, though it can also be figuratively used as in beacon of hope. Exemplar means an ideal model.

     

  2. fact
    feeling
    hypothesis
    concept
    premise
    Option E
    Premise means a statement or proposition from which another is inferred or follows as a conclusion. Hypothesis means something more than a wild guess but less than a well-established theory. Concept is an abstract idea.

     

  3. dramatic
    miraculous
    subtle
    profound
    startling
    Option D
    The modern society’s transformation in communication and governance etc is neither startling nor subtle. It’s not even dramatic or miraculous. It’s logical and based on science and intense.

     

  4. credited
    associated
    concerned
    charged
    identified
    Option A

     

  5. match
    different
    averse
    exception
    justification
    Option D
    No exception is used to state that something is no different from usual.

     

  6. reinvigorating
    heighten
    catalyzing
    stunting
    championing
    Option C
    Reinvigorate means to give new energy or strength to something but the context is about the commencement of indigenous manufacturing. Hence, it’s not about giving new energy to something. Stunting is to stop the growth of something. Championing stands for defending the cause of something.

     

  7. performed
    meant
    proved
    served
    bode
    Option E
    Bode well is a phrase which implies a favourable outcome.

     

  8. matter
    absence
    omission
    instatement
    dilemma
    Option B
    Dilemma means a situation in which a difficult choice has to be made between two or more alternatives, especially ones that are equally undesirable.

     

  9. stunning
    phenomenal
    invaluable
    immediate
    unique
    Option B
    Stunning is usually used for something beautiful. Phenomenal means exceptional or remarkable.

     

  10. sea
    catalyst
    promoter
    facilitator
    instigator
    Option D
    Smartphones have the made it convenient for the people to access technology. It is not a promoter but a medium in itself. The word instigator also means to initiate something but have negative connotations. Hence, the word facilitator that stands for a thing that makes something easier for others is the most suitable response.

     

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