English: Reading Comprehension Set 56

Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

  1. Though the Cold war has ended. Selective tactics are still continuing for ensuring the military and economic dominance of developed countries. Various types of technology denial regimes are still being enforced which are now being mainly targeted against developing countries like India.

    Today, we in India encounter two problems. On one side, there is a large scale strengthening of our neighbors through the supply of arms and clandestine support to their nuclear and missile programmer and on the other side all efforts are being made to weaken our indigenous technology growth through control regimes and dumping of low, tech systems, accompanied with a high commercial pitch in critical areas. The growth of indigenous technology and self-reliance is the only answer to the problem.

    Thus, in the environment around India, the number of missiles and nuclear powers are continuously increasing and destructive weapons continue to pile up around us, in spite of arms reduction treaties.

    To understand the implications of various types of warfare that may affect us, we need to take a quick look at the evolution of war weaponry and the types or warfare. I am highlighting this point for the reason that in less than a century we could see the change in the nature of warfare and its effects on society.

    In the early years of human history, it was mostly direct human warfare. During the 20th century up to about 1990, warfare was weapon driven. The weapons used were guns, tanks, aircraft, ships. Submarines and the nuclear weapons deployed on land/sea/air and also reconnaissance spacecraft. The proliferation of conventional nuclear and biological weapons was at a peak owing to the competition between the superpowers.

    The next phase, in a new form, has just started from 1990 onwards. The world has graduated into economic warfare. The means used is control of market forces through high technology. The participating nations, apart from the USA, are Japan, the UK, France, Germany, certain South-East Asian countries, and a few others. The driving force is the generation of wealth with certain types of economic doctrine.

    The urgent issue we need to address collectively as a nation is, how do we handle the tactics of economic and military dominance in this new form coming from the backdoor? Today technology is the main driver of economic development at the national level. Therefore, we have to develop indigenous technologies to enhance our competitive edge and to generate national wealth in all segments of the economy. Therefore, the need of the hour is to arm India with technology.

    Why do certain countries use selective tactics against developing countries?

    To help developing countries gain military and economic independence
    To help developing countries govern themselves and be economically independent
    To ally with developing countries to dominate over other developed countries
    To curtail their domination over developing countries
    None of the above
    Option E
    After referring to the first sentence of the passage we can conclude that developed countries are still using selective tactics for ensuring the military and economic dominance of themselves over developing countries.

     

  2. 2. Which are the issues of great concern that India is facing at present, according to the author of the passage?
    (A) The supply of high-tech weaponry by other countries to India’s neighbours who are likely to use the same agains India.
    (B) Other countries secretly helping India’s neighbours to strengthen their nuclear might.
    (C) Obstruction of India’s genuine efforts to develop its own nuclear technology.
    (A) and (B) only
    (B) and (C) only
    (A) and (C) only
    All (A). (B) and (C)
    None of these
    Option D
    Refer to the second paragraph of the passage, we can conclude that all options (A), (B) and (C) are true.

     

  3. Which of the following is implied by the enforcement of technology denial regimes by developed countries?
    Dominance of developing countries over developed countries
    Exploitation of developing nations by the mightier
    Targeting of developed countries by developing countries
    Sympathizing with underprivileged countries
    None of the above
    Option B
    The answer can be easily inferred from the first paragraph that enforcement of technology denial regimes by developed countries implies exploitation of developing nations by those developed countries.

     

  4. Which shift was the striking difference in warfare before and after 1990?
    Guns, tanks, etc., to nuclear weapons
    Ships and submarines to spacecrafts
    Weaponry to economic warfare
    Economic forces to high technology driven warfare
    None of the above
    Option C
    l. Refer to the first two sentences of the second last paragraph, it can be concluded that the main difference in warfare before and after 1990 was the shift from weaponry to economic warfare.

     

  5. Why according to the author, is it necessary to examine how weaponry and warfare have evolved?
    (A) To understand their implications for us.
    (B) To learn the rapid changes that have taken place In weaponry and warfare.
    (C) To master them and enable us to attack our enemies.
    All (A), (B) and (C)
    (A) and (B) only
    (A) and (C) only
    (B) and (C) only
    None of these
    Option B
    Refer to the fourth paragraph of the passage, we can conclude that it is necessary to examine how weaponry and warfare have evolved
    * To understand their implications for us.
    * To learn the rapid changes that have taken place in weaponry and warfare.

     

  6. According to the author, the most effective way to counter our major problems is to
    (A) develop indigenous technologies.
    (B) compete with other countries in their warring tactics.
    (C) generate national wealth in all segments of economy.
    All (A), (B) and (C)
    (A) and (B) only
    (B) and (C) only
    (A) and (C) only
    Only A
    Option A
    Refer to the last two sentences of the passage. ” We have to develop indigenous technologies to enhance our competitive edge and to generate national wealth in all segments of economy. Therefore, the need of the hour is to arm India with technology.”

     

  7. What, according to the author, is the solution to our problems in the International field?
    (A) Importing up-to-date technology and nuclear equipments from developed countries.
    (B) Developing our own in-house technology.
    (C) Eliminating dependence on developed countries.
    (A) and (B) only
    (A) and (C) only
    (B) and (C) only
    (A), (B) and (C)
    Only B
    Option C
    Refer to the last sentence of the second paragraph.
    “Growth of indigenous technology and self-reliance are the only answer to the problem.”

     

  8. What, according to the author, is the immediate problem to be collectively resolved by our country?
    To counter the dominance of developed countries through money and muscle power
    To eradicate poverty and become economically self-reliant
    To control the exorbitant rate of population growth
    To develop indigenous technology to manufacture mightier weapons
    None of the above
    Option D
    Refer to the first sentence of the last paragraph.
    “We have to develop indigenous technologies to enhance our competitive edge and to generate national wealth in all segments of economy.”

     

  9. Choose the word which is MOST opposite in meaning of the word printed in bold as given in the passage.

    Continuously

    Illegitimately
    Unconditionally
    Insensitively
    Uninterrupted
    Intermittently
    Option E
    In the passage continuously means ‘without stopping’. So, intermittently is most opposite in meaning to it which also means ‘occasionally’.

     

  10. Choose the word which is MOST opposite in meaning of the word printed in bold as given in the passage.
    Dominance
    Aggression
    Submission
    Assertion
    Ignorance
    Lethargy
    Option B
    In the passage dominance means ‘ being more important and powerful than others; supremacy’. So, submission is most opposite in meaning to it which also means ‘giving in; surrender’.

     

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