English Test for IBPS Clerk 2018 Main Exam Set – 18

Directions(1-10): In the passage given below there are 10 blanks. Every blank has four alternative phrases given in options (A),(B),(C), and (D). You have to tell which Phrase is APPROPRIATE according to the context. If all are appropriate then mark your answer as “E”.

Electric lighting, television, the internet and caffeine all ___1___ for reducing the amount of time people sleep ___2___ the days before such luxuries existed. Such alleged sleep deprivation is sometimes held responsible for ___3___ obesity, mood disorders and other modern ailments. The trouble with this argument, though, is that no one really knows how long people slept before coffee and light bulbs existed.
A study just published in Current Biology by Jerome Siegel of the University of California, Los Angeles and Gandhi Yetish of the University of New Mexico tries to provide an answer. Dr Siegel and Mr Yetish ___4___ three groups who cleave to pre-industrial (indeed, pre-agricultural) ways of life, to see if their sleep patterns differ from those of wired, urban humanity. ___5___ surprise, they have found that in many ways they do not.
The groups in question are the Hadza of northern Tanzania, the Ju/’hoansi San of the Kalahari Desert, in southern Africa, and the Tsimané in Bolivia. All live largely by hunting and gathering. Dr Siegel and Mr Yetish asked for volunteers, and 94 people agreed to collaborate with them by wearing devices that recorded their level of movement, and also when the blood vessels near their skin were constricting. Dr Siegel and Mr Yetish also put humidity- and temperature-monitoring devices in the areas where their volunteers tended to rest at night, in order to find out if these variables helped determine when they went ___6___ and woke up.
In total, the researchers collected 1,165 days’ worth of data. They found that people from all three groups slept for between 5.7 and 7.1 hours a day, with an average that ___7___ 6.5 hours. Far from exceeding those of a modern city-dweller, these values are near the low end of the range found in industrial societies. An average 7.5 hours a night is the norm there. Nor did the Hadza, the Ju/’hoansi San or the Tsimané retire shortly after the sun went down. Rather, they stayed awake for an average of 3.3 hours after nightfall, much as people in the developed world do. Their bedtimes appeared to be regulated by the temperature, rather than by daylight, and it takes several hours after the sun ___8___ for things to cool down.
The study also calls into question the idea that siestas are a feature of human behaviour that has been suppressed by modern ways of life. The volunteers rarely napped in summer (doing so on about one day in five), and almost never in winter. There were some differences. One was that hunter-gatherers exhibited a bigger seasonal variation in the amount of sleep they took than “modern” folk do. They slept almost an hour longer in winter than in summer, whereas the wired sleep about 20 minutes longer. Perhaps more intriguingly, they ___9___ from insomnia, a complaint prevalent in more than 20% of the population of industrial societies. Whether those who hunt and gather have anything to teach the modern world, then, ___10___. A closer examination of their lives may reveal ways of reducing insomnia. But the next time someone claims a siesta is a natural part of human life, rather than a response to partying after midnight, be sceptical.

  1. is reprieved
    get blamed
    got blamed
    being exonerated
    All are Correct
    Option B


  2. discerned to
    discerned with
    compared with
    compared to
    All are Correct
    Option C


  3. rising
    arose with
    a rise of
    All are Correct
    Option D


  4. looked at
    looked into
    looked with
    look at
    All are Correct
    Option A


  5. At some
    To some
    Over some
    For some
    All are Correct
    Option B


  6. was sleeping
    to sleep
    All are Correct
    Option C


  7. moved over
    hooked to
    tangled with
    hovered around
    All are Correct
    Option D


  8. has set
    has been set
    is set
    had set
    All are Correct
    Option A


  9. thoroughly tolerated
    barely suffered
    substantially afflicted
    copiously endured
    All are Correct
    Option B


  10. being moot
    be mooted
    is moot
    All are Correct
    Option D


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