Directions: Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:
Paragraph 1: While there is general acceptance that the Indian judicial system suffers from case delay and the use of antiquated methods, the discourse on judicial reform remains focussed on areas such as appointments and vacancies. It is time that organisational barriers and court processes that also contribute to case delay are studied. We focus on two areas that greatly affect court efficiency: case listing practices and court infrastructure.
Paragraph 2: The need to scientifically determine how many cases should be listed per day cannot be stressed enough. It is not uncommon to see over 100 matters listed before a judge in a day. When a judge is pressed for time, not only does the quality of adjudication suffer but it also means that several cases will inevitably go unheard. Matters listed towards the end (usually cases near the final stage of hearing) tend to be left over at disproportionate rates and often end up getting stuck in the system.
Paragraph 3: The second issue is infrastructure: from inadequate support staff for judges to the dearth of basic courtroom facilities. Without research and secretarial support, judges are unable to perform their functions in a timely manner. For instance, in a private interview, a judge said that even though he managed to hear close to 70 cases in a day, it took two days for the stenographers to finish typing the orders. A 2016 report published by the Supreme Court showed that existing infrastructure could accommodate only 15,540 judicial officers against the all-India sanctioned strength of 20,558. The lack of infrastructure also raises serious concerns about access to justice. A recent Vidhi study on district courts in the National Capital Region found that even basic needs such as drinking water, usable washrooms, seating and canteen facilities are often not available in court complexes. Solutions for such challenges will require a fundamental shift in how courts are administered.
Paragraph 4: Courts must become more open to applying management principles to optimise case movement and judicial time. In this, external support agencies competent in strategic thinking should be allowed to work with judicial officers to understand and help the institution function better. This is already a widely-adopted practice in executive departments across the country. Courts have partially realised this need and created dedicated posts for court managers (MBA graduates) to help improve court operations. But more often than not, court managers are not utilised to their full potential, with their duties restricted to organising court events and running errands.
- Which of the following is/are synonyms of dearth?
IV. ScarcityOnly IVOnly II and IVOnly I, II and IVOnly II, III and IVOnly I, III and IVOption A
Dearth: a scarcity or lack of something.
Tardy means delayed.
Prompt means on time
Inefficient means incompetent.
- Which of the following is/are antonyms of antiquated?
IV. MossyOnly IIOnly I and IIIOnly IIIOnly I, III and IVOnly II, III and IVOption C
Antiquated means old-fashioned or outdated.
- Which of the following is/are true as per the passage?
I. The existing court infrastructure is adequate for the current sanctioned strength at all-India levels.
II. It is not uncommon to see over 100 matters listed before a judge in a day.
III. The Indian Judiciary needs to be modernized.Only IIIOnly II and IIIOnly I and IIOnly I and IIINone of the aboveOption B
‘A 2016 report published by the Supreme Court showed that existing infrastructure could accommodate only 15,540 judicial officers against the all-India sanctioned strength of 20,558.’
‘The need to scientifically determine how many cases should be listed per day cannot be stressed enough. It is not uncommon to see over 100 matters listed before a judge in a day.’
- As per paragraph 1, which among the following are the focus areas of judicial reforms?
I. Framework for filling vacancies
II. Case Listing procedure
III. Infrastructure of courtsOnly IIOnly I and IIOnly IOnly II and IIIOnly I and IIIOption C
Refer to: ‘, the discourse on judicial reform remains focussed on areas such as appointments and vacancies.’
What could be some possible consequences of the issues mentioned in paragraph 2?
I. There is uncertainty about when the cases would come up for hearing next and hampers the efficacy of lawyers in preparing for their cases in a better manner.
II. There is a better chance of winning the case in case of frequent changes in the hearing dates.
III. Frequent re-listing impacts the efficiency of the court administrative staff.Only IIOnly I and IIOnly II and IIIOnly I and IIIAll of the aboveOption D
- Which of the following is an example of the statement in paragraph 3- ‘Without research and secretarial support, judges are unable to perform their functions in a timely manner.’?
A particular judge is able to hear only 40 cases per day and this leaves his support staff idle for almost one-third of the day.Even though a judge managed to hear close to 70 cases in a day, it took two days for the stenographers to finish typing the orders.Most of the present support staff lacks the necessary qualifications and there are frequent mistakes in the orders typed out by the stenographers.Both A and BBoth B and COption E
- After reading paragraph 4, what could be some other solutions to the problems mentioned in the passage?
I. Recording and analysing court-related data so as to prepare a database.
II. Digitization of court records with file-tracking and knowledge management systems.
III. Regular auditing of judicial infrastructureOnly IOnly IIIOnly I and IIOnly II and IIIAll of the aboveOption E
- ________ in exports of gems & jewellery and engineering goods, two major product groups, slowed down India’s export growth to 0.80 per cent in November. Other items which posted ________ in exports include marine products, leather goods, meat, dairy & poultry products, yarn, fruits, oil seeds and tea. Engineering goods, which is the second largest export item after petroleum products, posted a 16.35 per cent ________ in exports in November to $5.9 billion.
FailureRetrogradeProspectsFallNone of the aboveOption D
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government is likely to announce loan ________ worth billions of dollars to woo millions of farmers ahead of a general election. Farm loan ________ would be the biggest help the government has ever provided to farmers, said the officials, who did not wish to be identified in line with government policy. The previous Congress party-led coalition government had announced farm loan ________ worth nearly Rs 72,000 crore in 2008, helping it return to power with a bigger mandate in 2009.
WaiversRamificationsTurningsDeterminationsNone of the aboveOption A
- PSBs meet their capital requirement through various sources including ________ of capital from the market through issuance of capital instruments, monetisation of non-core assets etc. Since the recapitalisation announcement till November 2018, PSBs have been recapitalized to the tune of Rs 1, 28,861 crore through infusion and ________ of capital from the market. The new company is looking forward to ________ of funds from the foreign markets through the external commercial borrowing.
Direction(8-10): In each of the questions given below, a paragraph is given which has some blanks and those blanks have to be filled with the same word out of five words given below it. You have to choose that same word as your answer and fill up the blanks with that appropriate word.