Directions(1-6): Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of these.
Academics have debated the meaning of “knowledge” since the word was invented, but let’s not get into there. A dictionary definition is “the facts, feelings or experiences known by a person or group of people” (Collins English Dictionary). Knowledge is derived from information but it is richer and more meaningful than information. It includes familiarity, awareness and understanding gained through experience or study, and results from making comparisons, identifying consequences, and making connections. Some experts include wisdom and insight in their definitions of knowledge. In organizational terms, knowledge is generally thought of as being “know how”, or “applied action”. The last point is an important one. Today’s organizations contain a vast amount of knowledge and the NHS is certainly no exception. However, in applying knowledge management principles and practices in our organisation, knowledge is not our end, but the means for further action. What we are trying to do is to use our knowledge to get better at doing what we do, i.e. health care and health care improvement.
Knowledge management is based on the idea that an organization’s most valuable resource is the knowledge of its people. This is not a new idea – organizations have been managing “human resources” for years. What is new is the focus on knowledge. This focus is being driven by the accelerated rate of change in today’s organizations and in
society as a whole. Knowledge management recognizes that today nearly all jobs involve “knowledge work” and so all staff is “knowledge workers” to some degree or another – meaning that their job depends more on their knowledge than their manual skills. This means that creating, sharing and using knowledge are among the most
important activities of nearly every person in every organisation. It is easy to see the importance of knowledge in the health sector. As clinicians, managers and other practitioners, we all rely on what we know to do our jobs effectively. Do we know everything we need to know or are there gaps in our knowledge? Of course there are Medical advances are being made all the time so there is always new knowledge to be learned. Government policies are constantly evolving, as are management practices. The current modernization programme requires us to let go of what we knew and to learn and apply new knowledge. Changing doctor-patient relationships are requiring us to revisit our whole approach to the provision of health care. And of course, every new patient that comes through our door brings a potential new learning opportunity.
Do we share what we know? The NHS is made up of over a million individuals in hundreds of organisations, each of which have their own knowledge. Is the knowledge of individuals available to the whole organization? Is the knowledge or organizations available to the whole NHS? Not at present. How many times have we lost valuable knowledge and expertise when a staff member moves on? How many times have we “reinvented the wheel” when we could have learned from someone else’s experience? How many times have patients suffered as a result of the “postcode lottery”?
Do we use what we know to best effect? Not always. In the NHS Plan, the NHS was described as “a 1940s infrastructure operating in the 21st century”. Clearly our knowledge has not always been applied to best effect, and we have fallen behind the times. How many times have we had an idea about how a process or an activity could be improved, but felt we lacked the time or resources to do anything about it? How many times have we had an idea that might help our colleagues, but we keep quiet because our colleagues might not appreciate us “telling them how to do their job”? How many times have we implemented a new initiative, only to find we reverted back to the “old way” a few months later? Perhaps we have had insights about how our patients’ needs could be better met, but there was no forum for us to share and explore those insights so we just forgot about it.
1. Which of the following statement correctly highlights the relationship of information and knowledge?Information and Knowledge are distinct identities and cannot be interchanged.Information added with experience and creativity can be called Knowledge.Knowledge is wisdom and insight only and richer than information.Certain additions after study or experience can enrich information so much to be identified as knowledge.Knowledge is information in itself just richer than it.Option D
The passage states: “Knowledge is derived from information but it is richer and more meaningful than information. It includes familiarity, awareness and understanding gained through experience or study, and results from making comparisons, identifying consequences, and making connections. “
- What can be said about the NHS?
It is a knowledge management companyIt is a healthcare and health management company.NHS is not an organization but knowledge management software.NHS is a hospital.Nothing is clear about the NHS through the passage.Option B
As the paragraph is all about knowledge management and information sharing, it seems very probable as NHS has got something to do with it. But if one looks closely to the second paragraph, it becomes clear that NHS works closely into the healthcare domain as there is a sense of familiarity associated with doctor, patients and NHS according to the passage. Thus, it can be safely inferred that NHS is a healthcare and health management company
- Statement: There is always knowledge gap in the field of Health Care.
What can be said about the given statement on basis of the reading of the passage?TrueFalseMay be true but no supporting evidence is givenIrrelevantJudgmentalOption A
The third paragraph starts with the author accepting that the one needs to ensure that they know the gaps in knowledge and also mentions that the medical sector is marred with these gaps.
- What is the meaning of phrase marked in bold in the passage: ‘to reinvent the wheel’?
‘To reinvent the wheel’ means to waste a great deal of time or effort in creating something that already exists.
“Redundant” means not or no longer needed or useful; superfluous.
“Reclusion” means an act of shutting or the state of being shut up in seclusion.
“Persistence” means the fact of continuing in an opinion or course of action in spite of difficulty or opposition.
“Bizarre” means markedly unusual in appearance, style, or general character and often involving incongruous or unexpected elements.
“Ardous” means involving or requiring strenuous effort; difficult and tiring.
- Which statement is not true regarding the information given in the passage?
Knowledge is different from information.Knowledge gets lost by employee movement if not managed properly.Sometimes colleagues don’t share knowledge for personal reasons.All workers except management are knowledge workers.Most valuable resource in an organization is knowledge of its workers.Option D
While all the options have been mentioned at varied points in the paragraph, option D has not been mentioned in the passage.
- The author of the passage through last line of the passage seems to be _______.
“Optimistic” means hopeful and confident about the future.
“Pessimistic” means tending to see the worst aspect of things or believe that the worst will happen.
“Ironical” means using words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning.
“Contrasting” means to differ strikingly.
“Ponderous” means slow and clumsy because of great weight.
At the end of the passage, the author has a negative tone and mentions some issues about why it is difficult to meet the patients’ needs.
Roughly one fifth of the country’s (A)/ fresh food importing come from areas (B)/ threatened with climate chaotic, (C) sourced under conditions which are directly driving deforested, (D)/ drought and significant wealth inequality.ABCDAll are correctOption A
Segment B: The error lies in the use of the verb ‘importing’. It needs to be replaced by the noun ‘import’ to form the noun phrase ‘fresh food imports’.
Segment C: The error lies in the use of the adjective ‘chaotic’. It needs to be replaced by the noun ‘chaos’ to form the noun phrase ‘climate chaos’.
Segment D: The error lies in the use of the verb ‘deforested’. It needs to be replaced by the noun ‘deforestation’ to be contextually correct.
- The lung function in smokers (A) /is already impaired, and so, (B) /as a lung infection, Covid-19 aggressively(C) / attacks their lungs, making the situation worse, (D)/ often resulting in fatalities.
ABCDAll are correctOption E
- The 2015 Bihar Polls had been witnessed the (A)/ erstwhile JDURJD-Congress alliance defeated the BJP by a wide margin, (B)/ follows which Nitish Kumar retained the Chief
Minister’s post (C)/while RJD chief Lalu Yadav’s sons Tejashwi and Tej Pratap (D)/ became ministers in his cabinet.ABCDAll are correctOption D
Part A: Incorrect use of voice. The sentence is in active voice. So, we cannot use passive tone, ‘had been’, here. We need to use ‘had’.
Part B: Here ‘defeating’ should be used in place of ‘defeated’.
Part C: Wrong usage of ‘follows’. ‘Following’ should be used here.
- The world’s biggest lockdown had brought(A) /transportation of goods of India to a near halt(B) /even though the central government have (C)/exempted the sector from restrictions to(D) /halt the spread of coronavirus.
ABCDAll are correctOption D
In part A, it should be ‘has brought’ instead of ‘had brought’ because the sentence is in present perfect and not past perfect.
In part B the preposition ‘of’ before ‘India’ should be replaced with ‘in’. It means the transportation of goods inside/within India.
In part C ‘have’ should be replaced with ‘has’. Here ‘government’ is used as a collective noun, so it is singular.
Directions(7-10): In the given question, a sentence is divided into five parts out of which the last part is correct. Out of the remaining four, there are errors in three parts. Choose the part which doesn’t have an error. If all the four parts are correct, mark E i.e. All are correct as the answer.