Directions(1-10): In the following passage, there are blanks, each followed by a word given in bold. Every blank has four alternative words given in options (A), (B), (C) and (D). Find the word which best suits the place. If the given word suits the blank, mark ‘no change required’ as the answer.
Investment banking is a specific division of banking related to the creation of capital for other companies, governments and other entities. Investment banks underwrite new debt and equity securities for all types of corporations, (Q1) [snag] in the sale of securities, and help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganizations and broker trades for both institutions and private (Q2) [investors], covering the entire spectrum.
Many large investment banking systems are affiliated with or (Q3) [tributaries] of larger banking institutions. Broadly speaking, investment banks assist in large, complicated financial (Q4) [travels]. This may include advice as to how much a company is worth and how best to structure a deal if the investment banker’s client is considering an acquisition, merger or sale. It may also include the issuing of securities as a means of raising money for the client groups.
Investment banks employ bankers who help corporations, governments and other groups plan and manage large projects, saving their (Q5) [visitor’s] time and money by identifying risks associated with the project before moving it forward. In theory, investment bankers are experts in their field who have their (Q6) [nail] on the pulse of the current investing climate, so businesses and institutions turn to investment banks for (Q7) [banking] on how best to plan their development, as investment bankers can (Q8) [analyze] their recommendations to the present state of economic affairs.
Essentially, investment banks serve as middlemen between a company and investors when the company wants to issue stock or bonds. The investment bank assists with pricing financial instruments to (Q9) [exercise] revenue and with navigating regulatory requirements. Often, when a company holds its initial public offering (IPO), an investment bank will buy all or much of that company’s shares directly from the company. Subsequently, as a (Q10) [part] for the company holding the IPO, the investment bank will sell the shares in the market.AcquitImpedeTaxAidNo change requiredOption D
‘Snag’ is an unexpected or hidden obstacle, and it goes completely opposite to the implied meaning of the passage. On similar lines of reasoning, ‘impede’ which is to delay or prevent something, can also be eliminated. ‘Acquit’ is to free someone from a criminal charge, which is not at all related to investment banking. Using ‘tax’ as the filler would make it ‘tax in the sale of security’, which is contextually wrong. Taxation is primarily done by the government, and not by investment bankers. ‘Aid’ is to help or support someone or something. Using it in the blank would imply that ‘investment bankers’ help in ‘sale of security’, which fits contextually, as the passage talks about the applications of investment banking.
OrganisationsPartiesSubpoenaCommunistsNo change requiredOption E
‘Organization’, which is a group of people with a particular purpose, and ‘parties’, which is usually used to refer to a formally constituted political group, are similar to ‘institution’. As the required contrast is absent, hence these options can be eliminated. ‘Subpoena’ is a writ ordering a person to attend a court. It is contextually irrelevant, as it is used in the context of law. ‘Communist’, a person who supports or believes in the principles of communism, fits the blank grammatically. The blank can also be filled by the proposed filler ‘investors’. The opposite of an ‘institution’ can be an individual. Hence, ‘investors’ is the correct answer.
CornerstonesSubsidiariesAcquiredAddendumNo change requiredOption B
‘Tributary’ is a river or stream flowing into a larger river or lake. As evident from the definition, ‘tributary’ is predominantly used in the context of rivers. ‘Cornerstone’ is an important quality or feature of something. Using it in the filler would imply that every banking institution’s key is some investment banking system linked to it, which is not what the passage hints at. The passage hints that the investment banking systems are more like a branch of banking institutions. ‘Addendum’ is an item of additional material added at the end of a book. It also does not fits the blank contextually. Using ‘acquired’ would result in a grammatically incorrect statement. ‘Acquired’ should be followed by ‘by’ and not ‘of’. With respect to commerce, ‘subsidiary’ is a company controlled by a holding company. Using it in the blank would imply that many large investment banking systems are subdivisions of larger banking institutions, which is what the passage hints at too.
OperationStocksTransactionsDividendsNo change requiredOption C
The word ‘travels’ doesn’t fit the context of the passage. Investment banking is not at all related to travelling. The blank must be filled with a verb. ‘Stocks’ is a noun which is used to refer to shares. It is related to the general theme of the passage but does not fits the required blank. Similarly, ‘dividend’ is a sum of money paid regularly by a company to its shareholders out of its profits. It fits the general theme of the passage but does not fits the blank. Both ‘operations’, which is an activity in which a business is involved, and ‘transaction’, which is the action of conducting business, fit the blank grammatically. Between the two, ‘transaction’ is better suited for the blank, as ‘operation’ is more based towards implementation than strategizing. Also, ‘operation’ needs to be in the plural to be grammatically correct.
Customer’sConsumer’sClient’sPatient’sNo change requiredOption C
‘Visitor’ is an unprofessional term and it does not fit with the general theme of the passage. ‘Patient’ is a person receiving or registered to receive medical treatment and is not at all related to investment banking. ‘Consumer’ is primarily used for someone who consumes the product of someone. Contextually, ‘consumer’ does not fits the blank. ‘Customers’ are generally people who come to you mainly to buy products or services you supply, whereas a ‘client’ is someone who engages the services of a professional.
FingerStethoscopeHandEyeNo change requiredOption A
Though ‘stethoscope’ is a device used by the doctors to measure the heart rate of a person, yet, the correct answer is ‘finger’. ‘Finger on the pulse’ is an idiom which means to be aware of the latest things that are happening in a certain industry, which is also what the passage implies.
PreparingInvestmentBudgetingCounsellingNo change requiredOption D
Businesses take help from investment bankers to do business with other corporations. Using ‘investment’ and ‘budgeting’ would imply that businesses depend on investment bankers for money, which evidently is not the case. Option A if put, will not make a proper sense, while ‘counselling” fits appropriately.
GeneralizeTailorProposeAbjectNo change requiredOption B
‘Generalize’ is opposite to the meaning implies by the passage, hence it can be eliminated. ‘Propose’ is to put forward a plan or suggestion for consideration. Though it fits the blank grammatically, it does not implies the ‘customized’ nature of the plan. The proposed filler, ‘analyse’ also fits the blank. But using it is does not suggests anything about the implementation part, i.e. the fact that investment bankers analyse and make their recommendations to suit the requirements of the client. ‘Abject’ is to experience, usually bad, something to the maximum degree. It does not fit the blank contextually. Using ‘tailor’ in the blank would imply that investment bankers customise their plan for suiting their client, which is what the passage hints at.
AbatePreservePalliateMaximizeNo change requiredOption D
‘Abate’ is to become less intense or widespread. Using it in the blank would imply that the tools of investment ‘bankers’ lessen the revenue, which is the opposite of what the passage hints at. Similarly, ‘palliate’ to make a disease less severe without removing the cause. In general, using it in the blank would mean the same as ‘abate’ would, and hence can be eliminated too. You cannot exercise revenue, thus the word given in bracket is incorrect. “Preserve” means to conserve, which is unfit with respect to the context of the passage as the purpose of the Investment bankers is to improve revenues. Using ‘maximize’, would imply that the financial models provided by the Investment banks have considered every nook and corner and is the most optimised version of itself. Considering the fact that this is one of the primary jobs of Investment banks, and that they give professional counsel to businesses regarding the current market, ‘maximize’ fits the blank appropriately.
ProxyBehalfConsignmentCourtesyNo change requiredOption A
‘Courtesy’ is to show politeness in one’s behaviour, and do a task majorly as a favour, which is not the case. Investment bank’s selling of shares is not a favour but a professional job. The proposed filler, ‘part’ does not grammatically fit in the blank. ‘Part’ should be followed by ‘of’ and not ‘for’. ‘Consignment’ is a batch of goods destined for or delivered to someone. It does not fit the blank contextually. ‘Behalf’ is incorrect as the correct phrase is ‘on the behalf of’. So, ‘proxy’ which means a representative or a substitute, fits here most appropriately.
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