Mixed English Questions for Mains Exam — Set 206

Directions(1-9): Read the passage and answer the questions given below. Some words are printed in bold in order to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Member nations of the United Nations body charged with regulating shipping on the high seas adopted a first-ever strategy to blunt the sector’s large contribution to climate change bringing another major constituency on board in the international quest to cap the planet’s warming well below an increase of 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit). The strategy embraced by a committee of the International Maritime Organization would lower emissions from container ships, oil tankers, bulk carriers and other vessels by at least 50 percent by the year 2050 vs. where they stood in 2008. The group also said that emissions from shipping should reach a peak, and begin to decline, as soon as possible.

But the United States “reserved” its position on the strategy, with Coast Guard official Jeffrey Lantz, who headed the delegation to the London deliberations, saying that the country views “the establishment of an absolute reduction target as premature.” The United States also objected to how responsibilities would be divided between developed and developing countries, and expressed “serious concern about how this document was developed and finalized.” Shipping in recent years has been responsible for about 800 million tons annually of carbon dioxide emissions, according to Dan Rutherford, the marine and aviation program director of the International Council on Clean Transportation, who was in attendance for the deliberations in London. That means shipping’s emissions are 2.3 percent of the global total. “If you counted it as a country, it would be the sixth-largest source of CO2 emissions,” said Rutherford, noting that 800 million tons of annual emissions is comparable to emissions from Germany.

Moreover, if nothing is done to halt emissions growth in the industry, emissions are projected to continue to grow, and shipping would burn up a significant share of the remaining global carbon emissions allowable under the Paris climate agreement releasing as much as 101 billion tons of carbon-dioxide-equivalent emissions between now and 2075, according to an analysis by Rutherford’s organization. Shipping and aviation are two major greenhouse-gas-producing sectors that have sat rather uncomfortably in the context of the global push to cut emissions under the Paris climate agreement.

Both sectors are very difficult to decarbonize, since they rely on energy-dense fuels to allow ships or planes to travel great distances without stopping. Meanwhile, since the sectors have major international components, they are not the responsibility of any single country to regulate as part of a domestic climate-change strategy. Instead, addressing their role in climate change has fallen to United Nations bodies such as the IMO and the International Civil Aviation Organization. Yet despite the ambition of the current strategy for shipping, Rutherford’s group’s analysis shows that it may not be strong enough. The group says that to be consistent with the Paris agreement, shipping should emit no more than 17 billion tons of carbon-dioxide-equivalent emissions from 2015 onward but that the current agreement implies emissions between 28 billion and 43 billion tons.

The group says that to be consistent with the Paris agreement, shipping should emit no more than 17 billion tons of carbon-dioxide-equivalent emissions from 2015 onward but that the current agreement implies emissions between 28 billion and 43 billion tons. For shipping and aviation to decarbonize, current fuel oils would have to be replaced by biofuels or, perhaps ultimately, hydrogen or batteries. But such innovations so far are being tested only in smaller ships and planes. Rutherford said.“The largest container ships and airplanes use a tremendous amount of energy. They’re going to be harder to electrify or put hydrogen in,” he said.

  1. What is the primary purpose of the author of the passage?

    I. to highlight the significance of the strategy adopted by IMO to reduce the emissions by shipping industry which would help tackle climate change

    II. to highlight the contribution of shipping and aviation industry in the total volume of emissions and its impact on climate.

    III. to study the impact of climate change on low lying island nations and address their concerns of emissions from the shipping industry

    Only I
    Only II
    Only I and III
    Only II and III
    All of the above
    Option A
    Refer to the lines: Member nations of the United Nations body charged with regulating shipping on the high seas adopted a first-ever strategy to blunt the sector’s large contribution to climate change bringing another major constituency on board in the international quest to cap the planet’s warming well below an increase of 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit).

     

  2. Which out of the following can be inferred from the passage?
    Shipping and Aviation is regulated individually by the member counties of the UN which has made it difficult to set a target for emission control.
    Shipping industry is the largest contributor of carbon-dioxide emissions among other industries.
    The Paris Climate agreement aims to reduce the average global temperature by 1.5 Celsius or 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit.
    It would be difficult to switch to energy source with low carbon footprint for container ships.
    None of the above
    Option D
    Refer to the lines: Both sectors are very difficult to decarbonize, since they rely on energy-dense fuels to allow ships or planes to travel great distances without stopping. Meanwhile, since the sectors have major international components, they are not the responsibility of any single country to regulate as part of a domestic climate-change strategy. Instead, addressing their role in climate change has fallen to United Nations bodies such as the IMO and the International Civil Aviation Organization.
    Refer to the lines: Member nations of the United Nations body charged with regulating shipping on the high seas adopted a first-ever strategy to blunt the sector’s large contribution to climate change bringing another major constituency on board in the international quest to cap the planet’s warming well below an increase of 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit).
    Refer to the lines: For shipping to decarbonize, current fuel oils would have to be replaced by biofuels or, perhaps ultimately, hydrogen or batteries. But such innovations so far are being tested only in smaller ships, rather than the largest vessels, Rutherford said.“The largest container ships use a tremendous amount of energy. They’re going to be harder to electrify or put hydrogen in,” he said.

     

  3. Out of the given statements, which one is Dan Rutherford likely to agree with?

    I. Shipping emissions annually are equivalent to the emissions of Germany.

    II. If the shipping industry emissions continue to grow at the current rate then they would eat into the global carbon budget.

    III. The current strategy to curtail shipping industry emissions is not strong enough and the proposed limits are way lower than the required emission levels.

    Only I
    Only II
    Only I and III
    Only II and III
    All of the above
    Option D
    Refer to the lines: “If you counted it as a country, it would be the sixth-largest source of CO2 emissions,” said Rutherford, noting that 800 million tons of annual emissions is comparable to emissions from Germany.
    Refer to the lines: Moreover, if nothing is done to halt emissions growth in the industry, emissions are projected to continue to grow, and shipping would burn up a significant share of the remaining global carbon emissions allowable under the Paris climate agreement releasing as much as 101 billion tons of carbon-dioxide-equivalent emissions between now and 2075, according to an analysis by Rutherford’s organization.
    Refer to the lines: Yet despite the ambition of the current strategy for shipping, Rutherford’s group’s analysis shows that it may not be strong enough. The group says that to be consistent with the Paris agreement, shipping should emit no more than 17 billion tons of carbon-dioxide-equivalent emissions from 2015 onward but that the current agreement implies emissions between 28 billion and 43 billion tons.

     

  4. Which of the following statement highlight the objective of the strategy made by the committee of the International Maritime Organization?
    It aims to lower the emissions by heavy industries and cargo ships by 50% by the year 2050.
    It aims to lower the emissions by the transportation sector and food processing sector by 50% by the year 2050.
    It aims to lower the emissions by the container ships, oil tankers, bulk carriers and other vessels by 50% by the year 2050.
    It aims to lower the emissions by the energy sector including coal and natural gas and increase the investments in renewable energy.
    None of the above
    Option C
    Refer to the lines: The strategy embraced by a committee of the International Maritime Organization would lower emissions from container ships, oil tankers, bulk carriers and other vessels by at least 50 percent by the year 2050 vs. where they stood in 2008. The group also said that emissions from shipping should reach a peak, and begin to decline, as soon as possible.

     

  5. As per the passage, what are the problems which are common to both shipping and aviation industry?
    Both aviation and shipping industry require intensive investments.
    Both aviation and shipping industry are vulnerable to automation.
    Both aviation and shipping industry are difficult to decarbonize as it is not commercially viable to do so.
    Both aviation and shipping industry are difficult to decarbonize as it is difficult to power large vessels and planes through renewable energy.
    Both C and D
    Option D

     

  6. Which among the following must be the course of action to contain the emissions by the shipping industry so as to meet the goal set by the Paris Climate Agreement?

    I. The fuel used by the shipping industry should be replaced with biofuels and other renewable sources.

    II. The goal set by the Paris Climate agreement should be revised so as to allow the shipping industry more time to decarbonize.

    III. The UN should ask the member countries to produce more commodities domestically as to decrease the pressure on the shipping industry.

    Only I
    Only II
    Only I and III
    Only II and III
    All of the above
    Option A
    Refer to the lines: For shipping and aviation to decarbonize, current fuel oils would have to be replaced by biofuels or, perhaps ultimately, hydrogen or batteries.

     

  7. Which among the following statements represents the view of US regarding the strategy formulated by a committee of the International Maritime Organization?
    US has shown unequivocal support for the strategy and has applauded IMO for its realistic approach.
    US has supported the strategy formulated by the IMO but it is concerned with the emission targets set by IMO.
    US is skeptical about the strategy and its is of the view that setting of a reduction target is premature.
    US has dismissed the strategy and accused member nations of conspiracy to destabilize its economy.
    None of the above
    Option C
    Refer to the lines: But the United States “reserved” its position on the strategy, with Coast Guard official Jeffrey Lantz, who headed the delegation to the London deliberations, saying that the country views “the establishment of an absolute reduction target as premature.” The United States also objected to how responsibilities would be divided between developed and developing countries, and expressed “serious concern about how this document was developed and finalized.”

     

  8. Which among the following is similar in meaning to the word ‘deliberations’ as used in the passage?
    dispute
    discussion
    bedlam
    tribute
    None of above
    Option B
    Dispute- a disagreement or argument.
    Discussion- the action or process of talking about something in order to reach a decision or to exchange ideas.
    Bedlam- a scene of uproar and confusion.
    Tribute- an act, statement, or gift that is intended to show gratitude, respect, or admiration.

     

  9. Which among the following is similar in meaning to the word ‘consistent’ as used in the passage?
    congruous
    fickle
    steady
    wavering
    None of the above
    Option A
    Congruous- in agreement or harmony.
    Fickle- changing frequently, especially as regards one’s loyalties or affections.
    Steady- firmly fixed, supported, or balanced; not shaking or moving.
    Wavering- be undecided between two opinions or courses of action.

     

  10. Directions(10): Five statements are given below, labelled A, B, C, D and E, among these, four statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit into the theme of the passage.

  11. A. There was a time in our country when prejudice was not allowed to blatantly declare itself.
    B. We hear far more strident voices against reservation, against allowing communities to eat what they want, against norms of behaviour of women and such voices are getting normalised and have become part of our public gossip.
    C. There was a time when there was something that was shameful about publicly stating one’s prejudices.
    D. Repeatedly, we hear statements about caste, religion, the poor and the marginalised, in public domains and in public conversations as if they are matters of fact and not fictions of prejudice.
    E. The prejudices inherent in our media are compounded by those inherent in our education system.
    A
    B
    C
    D
    E
    Option E
    The whole paragraph centres around how being prejudiced was considered in the past and how it is being seen in today’s era.
    We can observe that all the sentences except E, are general and take the whole context into consideration whereas the sentence E specifically talks about prejudices in our education system.

     

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