Directions(1-10): Given below is a passage divided into XI segments. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.
(I) Among the students of democracy, there is a dominant trend that seeks to focus on an assessment, particularly of liberal democracy, keeping on view two main aspects: the substantive and the procedural. (II) The procedural aspect involves constitutional guarantees, which in turn offer every citizen an equal right to ______(A)______ in the political spaces that are formally open to the former without distinction. (III) The core concern of procedural democracy is that a right-bearing arena by virtue of their right to participate in such spaces enjoys equal worth, particularly in the electoral citizen. (IV) To put simply, the right to vote carries equal value in as much as it has the power to decide the _______(B)______ fate of the candidate. (V) Citizens enjoy these rights not because they belong to a particular region or religion, or speak a particular language, but because they have been bestowed with this opportunity by the Constitution. (VI) Several constitutional provisions enable a citizen not only to vote, but also to express their ________(C)__________ voice in the formulation of public policies that have bearing not just on their particular interest as individuals, but on the general welfare of the public.
(VII) Democracy as an open space, thus, in constitutional terms, enables an individual citizen to _________(D)___________ without anyone’s permission, patronage, or sympathy. (VIII) Citizens, in an ideal situation, thus, do not have any need to exist in the country with anyone’s courtesy or favour.
(IX) However, the democratic practice in the Indian context evolved into something that has been exactly opposite to the spirit of liberal democracy. (X) The focus of political and ________(E)_________ mobilisation, particularly by some political parties, has shifted from the need to promote an enlightened individual citizen to sliding down to group mobilisation based on caste and religious community. (XI) Such parties with a communal, sectarian _______(F)___________ have sought to dissolve individual citizens into the “constraining” logic of specific communities. This has been done with one single purpose, that of creating a political majority based on religion. Put differently, the particularisation of voters is a logically necessary condition to create and consolidate a party’s political identity as the party of the majority community; majority that is ethnic rather than democratic.
- The first sentence (I) of the passage has been divided into four parts in the given options. There may or may not be an error in one of the parts. Choose the part which has an error in it as your answer. If there is no error then choose option (E), “No error” as your answer.
Among the students of democracy, there is a dominant trendthat seeks to focus on assessment,particularly of liberal democracy, keeping on viewtwo main aspects: the substantive and the proceduralNo errorOption C
The error lies in the third part of the sentence where the preposition ‘on’ has been incorrectly used before ‘view’. The preposition ‘in’ is used to describe a belief, opinion, or interest. Thus, option C is the correct answer.
The phrasal verb ‘keep on’ means ‘continue to do something’.
- Which one of the given alternatives should be used to fill the blank marked as (A) in the second segment (II) of the passage, to make it grammatically and contextually meaningful?
Note that the word should also fill both the blanks of the following two sentences to make them contextually meaningful.
i. All members are therefore warmly encouraged to visit, support and _____________ in the new bulletin board.
ii. Guests can _____________ in one of the restaurant’s special wine and food event dinners.participateparticipatedwill participiatewill have participatedhad participatedOption A
- The third segment (III) in the given passage has four words given in bold. Of these, the positions of two words may be incorrect and need to be exchanged to make the sentence correct. Find the two words which need to be exchanged.
- From the given options, choose the word that can fill the blank marked as (B) in segment IV as well the one marked as (E) in segment X.
- With respect to the context of the passage, which of the following can be inferred from the italicized sentence mentioned in the fifth segment (V) of the passage?
Nehru’s leadership focuses more and more plainly on a single overriding objective; to assert a dominant centralizing power before the claims of regional self-interest can gather momentum.One of the internal elements, the development of which may affect the nation both directly through political action and indirectly through political or social philosophy, is ”Regionalism”.The constitution plays a vital role in any democracy as it defines the rights of the citizens in the democracy which transcend beyond regional, and personal aspirations.Roots of regionalism is in India’s manifold diversity of languages, cultures, ethnic groups, communities, religions and so on, and encouraged by the regional concentration of those identity markers, and fuelled by a sense of regional deprivation.None of theseOption C
The given passage is about democracy, its effects on citizenship, and how Indian democracy has failed to adhere to the spirit of liberal democracy. The highlighted sentence (V) talks about the concept that citizens enjoy certain freedom within a democracy as it has been given to them by the Constitution followed in a democracy. These freedoms are not an effect of the citizens’ regional affiliations.
Option A cannot be an inference regarding the passage from the given sentence as it deals with the topic of Nehru’s opinion backing centralization.
Option B talks about how regionalism affects national integrity and hence is not related.
Option C talks about the importance of the Constitution in a democracy and hence can be considered as an inference from the highlighted sentence for the given passage.
Option D talks about how regionalism developed in India and hence is not related to the highlighted sentence.
- Which of the following word given in the options should fill the blank marked as (C) in the sixth segment (VI) of the passage, to make it grammatically and contextually meaningful. Note that the word should also fill both the blanks of the following two sentences to make them contextually meaningful.
i. The ________ doctrine of the Gathas had no room either for the cult of Mithra or for that of the Haoma.
ii. The marine-themed restaurant’s decor is ________ and tasteful, and the servers are informed and helpful.historicoriginalauthenticBoth A and BBoth B and COption E
- Which of the following phrases should fill the blank marked as (D) in the seventh segment (VII) of the passage, to make it grammatically and contextually meaningful?
exist in the countryexit the countryselect their own leaders through electionssympathize with the nationalists in the countryallow migrants into the national zoneOption A
- Which of the following statement can come in between the Segments VIII and IX to maintain the continuity of the paragraph?
Such reduction of a person to minoritisation is morally coercive.The democratic practice of the last two decades makes an Indian quite skeptical about its capacity to become morally sensitive to the ethical need of a citizen to be an equally worthy being.Put differently, citizenship is not based on any kind of structural hierarchy.It is offensive to the extent that it denies members from the community an opportunity for self-realisation as enlightened citizens.Such values are best protected by creating a molar solidarity rather than a dominant desire to create political majority based on ethnicity.Option C
- In segment X of the passage, the blank marked as (E) is followed by a word given in bold. From, the given options, choose the word which should replace the word given in bold to make the sentence grammatically and contextually correct. If the given word suits the blank, mark option E, ‘No correction required’, as the answer.
militarizationadvantagedeploymentleverageNo correction requiredOption E
- Which of the following word should fill the blank marked as F in segment XI to make it contextually correct and meaningful?