Directions(1-8): Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of these.
The Anakkayam Small Hydro Electric Project is a tailrace development project that aims to harness electricity from the water flowing out of the existing Sholayar hydro project. The project received environment clearance in 1990 itself, and the state government sanctioned eight hectares of forest land under the Vazhachal Forest Division for the project. However, the project was stalled for several reasons. The transfer of forest land was delayed by more than 20 years, causing its environmental clearance to stand cancelled. But in 2013-14, the project obtained both Stage-I and Stage-II environmental clearances.
Interestingly, as per the project details listed on the Kerala State Electricity Board Limited website, the project is being implemented as a Clean Development Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. A Clean Development Mechanism, as per Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol (which India is a signatory to), can earn a country certified emission reduction credits in recognition of the clean, green energy it produces or utilises. But while the project may be clean (hydroelectric power is categorised as “clean” because it is renewable and does not pollute unlike fossil fuels), the hydropower project may be anything but green.
The forest land where the project is planned – which will involve ___(A)___ an unquantified number of small trees as well as 1,897 large trees including giants with a girth (or circumference) of more than 500 centimetres, – is home to tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests which support a diversity of wildlife. Fifteen acres of the eight hectares being diverted for the project under the Vazhachal forest division is part of the Parambikulam Tiger Reserve’s buffer zone, Mongabay-India reports.
These include species such as the uncommon Malabar pied hornbill Anthracoceros coronatus. A recent survey that (assessed) the impact of the 2018 floods recorded 196 bird species in the division; the area could be a “stronghold” of hornbills in the Western Ghats, the report found.
The Vazhachal Forest Division is also the only known home of the Athirapilly night frog, which was described in 2017. Frog biologist Sandeep Das (Kerala Forest Research Institute) has also encountered several individuals of the Cochin forest cane turtle (classified as “Endangered” as per the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List) here. The region is home to 131 butterfly and 51 odonate (dragon and damselfly) species, including endangered species such as the Malabar tree nymph, as well as 1,164 flowering plants, of which 103 are endemic to the Western Ghats. More than 60 species of mammals, including the Asian elephant, use the Division.
Small hydropower projects in such areas are not devoid of impacts. A study in 2017 found that in Karnataka, there was a strong correlation between the construction of four Small Hydro Electric Projects along the Netravati river and the onset of human-elephant conflict in the area.
1. Given below is a possible inference that can be drawn from the facts stated in the second paragraph. You have to examine the inference in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.
“Kyoto Protocol successfully incentivises countries to produce and utilise green energy.”Definitely trueProbably trueThe data are inadequateProbably falseDefinitely falseOption C
The passage mentions that Anakkayam Small Hydro Electric Project may produce clean energy, it is not completely green. The passage however, doesn’t criticise the Kyoto Protocol, but rather focuses its disapproval at the Project itself. So, due to the lack of information, we cannot verify the given inference.
- Which of the following correctly describes the tone of the passage?
The author begins the passage by stating how Anakkayam Small Hydro Electric Project may be “anything but green” and follows this claim by suitable proofs. Clearly, the author is condemning the project, which sets up the tone of the passage.
- Which of the following correctly explains the meaning of “devoid of impacts” as mentioned in the passage?
A) Without any consequences
B) Lack of any ramifications.
C) Escalation of repercussions.Only AOnly CBoth B & CAll A, B & CBoth A & BOption E
If you say that someone or something is devoid of a quality or thing, you are emphasizing that they have none of it. Thus, to be “devoid of impact” means the lack of consequences or ramifications.
- Which of the following is the MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the given word as used in the passage?
Assess means to evaluate or estimate the nature, ability, or quality of.
Stall means to stop or cause to stop making progress.
Impose means to force (an unwelcome decision or ruling) on someone.
Demand means to ask authoritatively or brusquely.
Estimate means roughly calculate or judge the value, number, quantity, or extent of.
Charge means to demand (an amount) as a price for a service rendered or goods supplied.
- Which of the following statements can follow paragraph 3 to form a connection with paragraph 4?
The Kadar rely on these forests for a range of nontimber forest produce, harvesting which is their only means of sustenance and livelihood.Surveys have recorded between 120 and 139 bird species in the Vazhachal Forest Division alone.There’s one herd, probably with an extremely small home range, in the Vachumaram range that uses the area round the year.The excavation and construction for the project will occur very close to the Anakkayam settlement.The stream in the vicinity is also used for fishing.Option B
The first line of paragraph 4 begins with “these include” followed by naming a species of a hornbill. This means that the sentence preceding should mention bird species of which the hornbill could be a part of. Only option B mentions bird species.
- Which of the following statements is true about hydropower projects with reference to the given passage?
They’re wrongly classified as “clean”.Their shortcomings outweigh the benefits.They result in habitat destruction.They create new habitat for migratory birds.Only small animals are impacted by the projects.Option C
“The forest land where the project is planned…is home to tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests which support a diversity of wildlife.” This wildlife will lose their natural habitat after the project is complete.
- Which of the given options can be used to complete the blank labelled (A) in the most appropriate way, contextually and grammatically?
razing downwear downput downset downcrack downOption A
When you raze something down, you are demolishing or levelling it to ground. Since, we are talking about loss of habitat, which could only come after felling of trees, this is the best suitable phrase for the blank. Wear down means to consume or be consumed by long or constant wearing, rubbing, etc. If you put something down somewhere, you write or type it there. If a committee or organization sets down rules for doing something, it decides what they should be and record it. A crack down is strong official action that is taken to punish people who break laws.
- According to the passage, why was Anakkayam Small Hydro Electric Project postponed for 20 years?
It did not qualify under Kyoto Protocol.Both C & DIts environmental clearance was cancelled.Transfer of forest land was delayed.None of the aboveOption D
The passage states that there was a delay in the transfer of government sanctioned land. This postponed the project. This pushing the project back is what caused the cancellation of environment clearance. So, the passage provides only one reason behind the project being postponed i.e., delay in land transfer.
(D) GreetA, BB, C, DB, DA, DB, COption C
‘Address’ in different context means:
• the particulars of the place where someone lives, or an organization is situated.
• name someone (in the specified way) when talking to them.
‘Audacity’ is a willingness to take bold risks.
‘Inscription’ is a thing inscribed, as on a monument or in a book.
Hence, ‘inscription’ and ‘greet’ are synonyms of ‘address’ when used in different contexts.
(D) TwistA, BB, CA, B, C, DA, C, DA, B, DOption E
‘Wound’ in different context means:
• an injury to living tissue caused by a cut, blow, or other impact, typically one in which the skin is cut or broken.
• inflict a wound on.
• move in or take a twisting or spiral course.
‘Mutilate’ means ‘to inflict a violent and disfiguring injury on’.
Hence, ‘injury’, ‘mutilate’, and ‘twist’ are synonyms of ‘rent’ when used in different contexts.
Directions(9-10): Below is given a single word with options to its meaning in different contexts. You have to select all those options which are synonyms of the word when the context is changed. Select the correct alternative from (A), (B), (C), and (D) which represent all those synonyms.