Directions (1-7): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
India’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution has been widely hailed as a significant next step for not only meeting the country’s domestic development goals but its international commitments to combating climate crises as well. Submitted to the UN for the period 2021 to 2030, it promises to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 per cent by 2030, from its 2005 level. This is half of what China has declared (60-65 per cent) and a few notches higher than the target set by the US (26-28 per cent).
Why has India, which is low in terms of its cumulative global emissions and per capita emission in comparison to both China and the US, set such high targets? Is it an exercise in global climate diplomacy or an astute move to garner global funds for technology transfer and capacity building support to achieve the targets? For it to deliver on the promised commitments, the country would need no less than $2.5 trillion over the next decade or so.
At 2.44 tonnes per capita, India may be at the bottom of the current list of leading emitters, but the promised emission targets will bequeath it with per capita emission of 8.98 tonnes in 2030, far below the projected per capita emissions of 12 tonnes by China and the US, but some three times more than the present. No wonder these targets by the top polluters — including India — aren’t significant enough to deal with the climate crisis, as they are more than what is required in order to limit global temperature rise by 2 °C.
In reality, there has been a need to cut emissions to the tune of 70 per cent below the 2010 levels by 2050, if the world is to be on the path to restrict the increase in temperature. However, the emissions sum-game played by the leading emitters has polarised the global climate negotiations. By entering into an agreement whereby China would match its emissions with that of the US in 2030, carbon space has been conveniently appropriated. This leaves a lot to speculate about the role of corporations in the deal.
No wonder, to satisfy their energy demands in the face of lopsided economic growth, the developing countries have promised emission targets that seem carbon-friendly on paper but not on the ground. India’s intention to achieve 40 per cent cumulative electric power installed capacity from renewable sources alongside creating an additional carbon dioxide sink of 2.5-3 billion tonnes through additional tree cover by 2030, can be read in that light. It will only fuel per capita emission some three times by 2030.
With India considering both hydro and nuclear power to be environmentally benign, good intentions may get lost in smoke. Since coal continues to find favour as the dominant source of energy followed by hydro and nuclear power, the proposed green energy alternatives will hardly get the desired push.
Thermal power contribution to India’s installed capacity is unlikely to change from the present 60 per cent; energy contribution from hydro power is projected to double and nuclear power some six times from the present installed capacities. This can only trigger three times more per capita emissions.
Globally, coal-based power provides 40 per cent electricity, and China emits one-third of the global carbon dioxide on account of its coal consumption. India is the second largest coal consumer after China, which is responsible for 1.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per person per year. The question is whether clean coal technologies will
deliver on the promise to cut down on carbon dioxide emissions. Even if it does, the destruction of forests and habitats will release carbon dioxide.
With INDC focused predominantly on emissions reduction, social and environmental issues get pushed to the periphery. That thermal, hydro and nuclear projects cause environmental destruction, deforestation and large-scale displacement doesn’t get counted in the emissions scenario. The premise of ‘coal-cess’ and ‘compensatory
afforestation’ offer a trade-off: first sacrifice environmental concerns for development projects, and then invest funds thus generated in creating carbon sinks.
1. According to the passage, which of the following countries are top polluters?China and UKChina and IndiaChina and USIndia and USNone of theseOption E
The concluding part of the second paragraph, makes it clear that the top polluters are USA and China, also India has been included in that list. India’s inclusion is a bit tricky to understand and requires some close viewing.
- Find the incorrect statement on the basis of the given passage?
a) The developing countries have promised for carbon-friendly.
b) India’s intention is to achieve 40 per cent cumulative electric power installed capacity from renewable sources.
c) At 2.44 tonnes per capita, India may be at the bottom of the current list of leading emitters.Only aOnly bOnly cAll a, b and cNone of theseOption E
Statement 1 is the first line of the third paragraph.
Statement 2 is mentioned in the middle of the fourth paragraph.
Statement 3 is mentioned in the middle of the second paragraph.
- According to the author, what will hardly get the desired push?
I. Carbon dioxide emissions
II. Green energy alternatives.
III. Emission targets of countries.
IV. Environmental concerns for development projects.Only IOnly IIBoth II and IIIBoth I and IVNone of theseOption B
This is mentioned in the last line of the fifth paragraph that the green energy alternatives will hardly get the desired push.
- What is the central theme of the passage?
Climate changes and its effects.Causes of Global warmingClimate crisisClimate changesNone of theseOption C
The central theme of the passage is of the climate crisis as the author has mentioned a lot of stats of emissions and also the methods which are being undertaken in order to counter this issue.
- Which of the following is ‘true’ in the context of the passage?
The thermal, hydro and nuclear projects cause environmental destruction and deforestation.China emits one-forth of the global carbon dioxide on account of its coal consumption.India is the third largest coal consumer after China.All of aboveNone of theseOption A
Option B is incorrect because the opening line of the second last paragraph says that China accounts for one-third of the global emissions.
Option C is incorrect because it is mentioned in the second last paragraph that India is the second largest coal consumer after China.
Option A can be inferred from the fifth paragraph which mentions that The good intentions of India might get lost in the smoke.
- Choose the word that is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word given in bold as used in the passage.
Astute means having or showing an ability to accurately assess situations or people and turn this to one’s advantage.
Smart has the similar meaning as astute, so the correct response is C.
Morose means sullen and ill-tempered.
Brutish means showing little intelligence or sensibility
- Select the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning of the word as used in the passage.
Garner means gather or collect (something, especially information or approval).
Dissipate means waste or fritter away (money, energy, or resources).
Freebie means a thing that is provided or given free of charge.
Gratis means without charge; free.
Gratuitous means done without good reason; uncalled for.
(D) ExplicateA, BB, CA, CA, B, CA, B, DOption E
The word ‘illuminate’ is a verb which refers to:
1. Light up; decorate a building or structure with lights for a special occasion.
2. Decorate a page or initial letter in a manuscript with gold, silver or coloured designs.
3. Help to clarify or explain.
The words have following meanings:
A. Irradiate: Illuminate something by or as if by shining light on it.
B. Ornament: A thing used or serving to make something look more attractive but usually having no practical purpose.
C. Implicate: To show someone to be involved in a crime; to convey a meaning indirectly through what one says, rather than stating it explicitly.
D. Explicate: To analyse and develop an idea or principle in detail.
(A) Device for weaving
(C) Be imminent
(D) EmergeA, B, DA, B, C, DC, DA, C, DB, C, DOption D
The word ‘loom’ has multiple meanings. It means an apparatus for making fabric by weaving yarn or thread.
It also means to appear as a vague form, especially one that is large or threatening. It also means (of an event regarded as threatening) seem about to happen.
(D) HallmarkAA, BA, B, CA, B, C, DNone of the aboveOption D
‘Stamp’ means bring down (one’s foot) heavily on the ground or on something on the ground i.e. ‘squash’. It also means impress a pattern or mark on (a surface, object, or document) using an engraved or inked block or die i.e. ‘imprint’. It also means a characteristic or distinctive impression or quality i.e. ‘hallmark’. It also means to crush or
Directions(8-10): A single word is given below followed by four options that express its meaning in different contexts. Select the correct alternative from (A), (B), (C), and (D) that contains a set of words synonymous to the given word.