Mixed English Questions for Mains Exam — Set 335

Directions(1-4): In the question given below, three sentences have been given and in each of the sentences, four words have been highlighted. The spelling or the context of the highlighted words may or may not be correct. From the given alternatives, choose the one which indicates the incorrect word in each statement. If all the words in all the sentences are correct, choose option E i.e. ‘All are correct’ as your answer.

  1. A) The couple(1) want to become fiscally(2) independent but have not yet elaborated(3) any commercial means(4) of doing so.
    B) Wolves, which are protected(1) by EU nature law,(2) have not been universally allowed,(3) as they kill some farm animals, typically(4) sheep.
    C) The way we treat(1) the most vulnerable(2) people is a taste(3) of who we are, what kind of country we hope to live in and what humanity(4) we have.
    A-2, B-3 and C-3
    A-3, B-2 and C-2
    A-4, B-4 and C-1
    A-1, B-1 and C-4
    All are correct
    Option A
    In sentence A, the monetary matters of a couple are under consideration. ‘Fiscally’ refers to the government revenue, especially taxes. The word ‘financially’would be a better fit here as it refers to finances.
    In sentence B, the usage of ‘allowed’ is incorrect as it makes an incomplete sense.
    In sentence C, ‘taste’ is the wrong word in context of the sentence. Rather ‘test’ which means an event or situation that reveals the strength or quality of someone or something by putting them under strain is the better fit word over here.


  2. A) China’s government is awareness(1) of the environmental and social risks of rapid(2) industrialization, and the country has an active(3) community of researchers and policymakers working(4) on sustainability measures.
    B) This work is a millstone,(1) nonetheless, because it shows how it’s possible(2) to measure detailed progress(3) towards the SDGs, and to reveal(4) where countries fall short.
    C) For decades, researchers and policymakers have been searching(1) for a measure that everyone can agree(2) on but most efforts,(3) from the Human Development Index to the Genuine Progress Indicator, end up lack(4) some aspect of those three characteristics.
    A-1, B-1and C-4
    A-3, B-4 and C-2
    A-4, B-2 and C-1
    A-2, B-3 and C-3
    All are correct
    Option A
    ‘Awareness’ is a noun and cannot be used in context of sentence A. it needs an adjective like ‘aware’ which means having knowledge or perception of a situation or fact.
    In sentence B, ‘millstone’ is incorrect as it means each of two circular stones used for grinding grain. The correct word here should be ‘milestone’ which means a significant stage or event in the development of something.
    In sentence C, ‘lack’ is the present tense form which is incorrect as the sentence needs a gerund. So, ‘lacking’ should be correct.


  3. A) On 5 January 2020, a masked(1) mob brutally attacked(2) the students and teachers of Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) who were holding(3) a peace meeting on the campus(4)
    B) It is precisely(1) to save students’ right to affordable and quality public education(2) and to prevent further comodification(3) of higher education that a large number of students have been protesting against the proposed(4) hostel fee hike for more than two months.
    C) The consistently obstinate(1) and high-handed approach of the administration(2) seems to be following the line taken by the current regime(3) that has favoured reprehensible(4) over negotiation or any attempts at dialogue.
    A-2, B-2 and C-3
    A-3, B-4 and C-2
    A-2, B-3 and C-4
    A-1, B-1 and C-1
    All are correct.
    Option C
    In sentence A, instead of ‘attacking’ which is the present tense form it should be ‘attacked’ which is the past tense as the incident occurs in the past.
    In sentence B, the word ‘commodification’ has been misspelt making it incorrect.
    In sentence C, ‘reprehensible’ is an adjective that is not modifying any noun. In context of the given sentence, it is best replaced by ‘repression’ which means the action of subduing someone or something by force.


  4. A) When it comes to research integrity,(1) scientists use the language(2) of aspiration, while(3) policymakers talk about hard rules(4) and enforcement.
    B) For the working researcher, complying (1) with a research-integrity policy(2) can sometimes feel like another unwelcome burgeon(3) — yet another form to fill in, set of data to record or online system(4) to feed.
    C) This is a welcome and genuinely collaborative(1) effort, the result of many rounds of discussion(2) between researchers, institutional leading(3) and patient representatives, among other stakeholders.(4)
    A-1, B-1 and C-1
    A-2, B-2 and C-2
    A-3, B-3 and C-3
    A-4, B-4 and C-4
    All are correct
    Option C
    in sentence A, the conjunction ‘while’ is incorrect as it is used to introduce a time clause. The sentence on the other hand highlights the difference between two groups regarding ‘research integrity’ and so the correct conjunction to be used here is ‘whereas’ which is used to express a contrast between two facts or two ideas.
    In sentence B, ‘burgeon’ means begin to grow or increase rapidly which is incorrect in the context. The correct word here should be ‘burden’ which means cause (someone) worry, hardship, or distress.
    In sentence C, ‘leading’ is incorrect. The correct word here is ‘leaders’ as it would make them a part of ‘stakeholders’.


  5. Directions(5-7): Read the given passage carefully. Choose the most appropriate option from the given alternatives which expresses the summary of the passage.

  6. Tavernier and Willoughby’s (2014) study explored the relationships between university students’ sleep and their intrapersonal, interpersonal, and educational development. While the authors cited many scholars, who have explored these relationships, they pointed out that most of these studies focused on unidirectional correlations over a short period of time. In contrast, Tavernier and Willoughby tested whether there was a bidirectional or unidirectional association between participants’ sleep quality and duration and several psychosocial factors including intrapersonal adjustment, friendship quality, and academic achievement. Further they conducted a longitudinal study over a period of three years in order to determine whether there were changes in the strength or direction of these associations over time. They predicted that sleep quality would
    correlate with measures of intrapersonal adjustment, friendship quality, and academic achievement; they further hypothesized that this correlation would be bidirectional: sleep quality would predict psychosocial measures and at the same time, psychosocial measures would predict sleep quality.
    i. Lack of sleep among college students has been identified as one of the top three health related impediments to academic performance.
    ii. Electronic devices in the bedroom are broadly linked with poor sleep in adolescents.
    iii. Students with an irregular bedtime schedule may experience poor sleep quality.
    Only i is correct
    Only ii is correct
    Only iii is correct
    Both ii and iii are correct
    None is correct
    Option A
    Statement ii is incorrect as the passage talks about the sleep pattern of ‘university – level students’ and not adolescents who by definition fall within the age group of 10 – 19 years. Also, the statement puts majority of the sleep deprivation blame on ‘electronic devices’ while the passage makes no such claims. Statement iii is a very general statement and does not point out the correlation between lack of sleep and academic performance as pointed out in the passage. Statement i is the best fit summary for the given passage as it considers all the key points – university level students, lack of sleep, academic performance. It provides a clear picture of the given passage and does not include the technical terms.
    Hence, A is the correct answer.


  7. In “My Favorite Shoe,” Treyvon Jones explains that Nike shoes are the best brand of running shoe for serious track athletes. Jones supports this view by pointing out that Nike shoes are more comfortable, last longer, and provide more cushioning for the feet. He notes that the statistics from sales and scientific evidence of how Nike shoes are better for the feet support his claim. In addition, Jones points out that most professional runners use Nike and he tells his own story of how he won the 100-meter men’s competition after switching to Nike shoes.
    i. Some runners care a lot about weight, and research shows that you expend more aerobic energy with heavier shoes.
    ii. The Float Ride Run Fast, however, won’t stress your credit card nearly as hard and shares some traits with the 4% to help you reach the finish line faster.
    iii. Some breeds, such as huskies and greyhounds, were bred to run, and most working dogs are naturally suited to running
    Only i
    Only ii
    Only iii
    Both ii and iii are correct
    None is correct
    Option E
    The passage is about the effectivity of Nike running shoes and the author goes on to prove the same through statistics. The author is in full support of using Nike running shoes and provides his own example as a convert. Statement i talks about preferences of runners and is not related to shoes or even if it is so related it is not a clear inference. Statement ii talks about a different brand altogether and hence cannot act as a summary to the given passage. Statement iii talks about dog breeds that can be specifically used for running and hence is not related to the passage. So none of the given statements can act as a summary for the passage.


  8. In “Sex, Lies and Conversation; Why is It So Hard for Men and Women to Talk to Each Other?” linguist Deborah Tannen suggests that the problems of communication in marriage can be solved if couples learn that men and women have different styles of communication. Tannen notes that research shows that women create intimacy in relationships through looking at one another, sharing similar problems, and interrupting by making supportive comments or sounds; however, she reports that this type of communication style often makes men feel threatened and like women are not listening to them. Instead, Tannen reports that men, because of their need to relate inside a hierarchy in other same sex relationships, see support in a conversation as telling someone the problem isn’t so bad, or finding a way to fix it. Women, Tannen says, feel that sort of communication as intimidating and unsympathetic. What is the solution? According to Tannen, teaching men and women each other’s conversational styles can help people understand what the other person is really trying to communicate and head off misunderstandings, which can strengthen marriage relationships, and prevent divorce (Tannen 2-4).
    1. The mediation provided something that the court system, which often fosters mistrust and anger, could not: a safe place to resolve their legal claims while expressing their emotions.
    2. There are steps that couples can take to avoid the misunderstandings which often lead to hurt feelings, blame, and eventual estrangement.
    3. Where courts are focused on justice for one, mediation, created therapeutic justice for all parties involved with a case petitioner, respondent, and the family members and friends involved.
    Only 1 is correct
    Only 2 is correct
    Only 3 is correct
    Both 2 and 3 are correct
    Both 1 and 3 are correct
    Option B
    The passage acts like a review of a book where it talks how disputes between a husband and a wife can be settled through understanding the patterns of communication. Statements 1 and 3 talk about the effectiveness of mediation over the judicial system when it comes to problems in marriage. Thus, they cannot act as the summary for the given passage. Statement 2, however, talk about steps that can resolve the problems in a marriage and proper communication is one of the most essential points.
    Hence, B is the correct answer.


  9. Directions(8-10): A sentence divided into 5 parts is given, each of which is numbered. One of the parts of the sentence is missing and is marked by a blank. Choose the option as your answer, which when filled in the blank will render the first part of the sentence incorrect.

  10. The initiative, however, comes with its drawbacks (1)/ __________________ (2)/ on these financial institutions, (3)/ directed by the clauses of these institutions (4)/and complemented with increased liability of loan repayment. (5)
    as the developing countries are heavily dependent
    owing to the freedom of developing countries in
    because of heavy dependence by the developing countries
    because of independence of the countries
    None of these
    Option B
    The first part talks about drawbacks. This can happen as per the context of the sentence, if there is some form of dependence. Thus, to make the first part wrong, the blank part should hint towards independence. Out of options B and D, B is more grammatically correct. Thus, option B is the correct answer.


  11. Scientists say climate change is causing powerful hurricanes like Dorian (1)/ to increasingly stall over coastal areas, (2)/ which leads to heavy flooding (3)/ as proved when officials in the Bahamas feared “unprecedented” devastation (4)/_______________________________ . (5)
    after Dorian hovered over the islands for two days, pummelling it with rain.
    Because of the hurricane Dorian.
    Owing to excessive flooding.
    Owing to excessive flooding caused by the hurricane Dorian.
    None of the above
    Option C
    The first part of the sentence talks about the opinion of scientists regarding climate change in conjunction to hurricanes like ‘Dorian.’ The later part of the sentence talks about effects of the hurricane Dorian. But if we use option C it breaks the continuity of the sentence as it only mentions flooding and not the cause behind it. Thus, option C is the correct answer as its usage makes the 􀁽rst part discontinuous with the rest of the sentence.


  12. Late last year, the media blared (1)/ that these and other consequences of climate change (2)/ could cut US GDP by 10 per cent(3)/ by the end of the century — “more than double the losses of the Great Depression,”(4)/ ___________________________ (5)
    as The New York Times intoned.
    as intoned by The New York Times.
    as The New York Times had intoned.
    as The New York Times intones.
    None of the above
    Option D
    The first part states a media proclamation that had happened in the past. ‘The New York Times’ as mentioned in the options is a part of the media. Thus, if the tense is in present or future format in the option for the blank, it will make the first part grammatically incorrect as it is in the past tense. Thus, option D is the correct answer.



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