Direction(1-5): Read the following passage and answer the questions that follows.
Paragraph1:Let us consider whether women as a group have unique, politically relevant characteristics, whether they have special interests to which a representative could or should respond. Can we argue that women as a group share particular social, economic, or political problems that do not closely match those of other groups, or that they share a particular viewpoint on the solution to political problems? Framing the working definition of ―representable interests in this fashion does not mean that the problems or issues are exclusively those of the specified interest group, any more than we can make the same argument about other types of groups more widely accepted as interest groups.
Paragraph 2: The fact that there is a labour interest group, for example, reflects the existence of other groups such as the business establishment, consumers, and government, which in a larger sense share labour‘s concerns, but often have viewpoints on the nature of, or solutions to, the problems which conflict with those of labour.
Paragraph 3: Nor does our working definition of an interest group mean that all of the potential members of that group are consciously allied, or that there is a clear and obvious answer to any given problem articulated by the entire group that differs substantially from answers articulated by others. Research in various fields of social science provides evidence that women do have a distinct position and a shared set of problems that characterize a special interest.
Paragraph 4 : Many of these distinctions are located in the institution in which women and men are probably most often assumed to have common interests, the family. Much has been made of the ―sharing or ―democratic model of the modern family, but whatever democratization has taken place, it has not come close to erasing the division of labour and, indeed, stratification, by sex. Time-use studies show that women spend about the same amount of time on and do the same proportion of housework and child care now as women did at the turn of the century. To say that women are in a different social position from that of men and therefore have unique interests to be represented is not, however, the same as saying that women are conscious of these differences, that they define themselves as having special interests requiring representation, or that men and women as groups now disagree on policy issues in which women might have a special interest.
Paragraph 5 :Studies of public opinion on the status and roles of women show relatively few significant differences between the sexes, and do not reveal women to be consistently more feminist than men. On the other hand, law and public policy continue to create and reinforce differences between women and men in property and contract matters, economic opportunity, protection from violence, control over fertility and child care, educational opportunities, and civic rights and obligations. The indicators generally used to describe differences in socioeconomic position also show that the politically relevant situations of women and men are different. Women in almost all countries have less education than men, and where they achieve equivalent levels of education, segregation by field and therefore skills and market value remains.
- According to the passage, which of the following experiences do modern women have most nearly in common with women who lived in 1900?
A) They are represented only as individuals and not as a group.
B) They spend about the same amount of time on housework.
C) They experience significant discrimination in employment.
D) The proportion of women among those designated as representatives is lower than among the represented.
E) They are still not considered the equal of men.
- What is the main function of Paragraphs 1 -3?
A) to assert that women should be treated as the equal of men
B) to discuss the legitimate definition of a political interest group
C) to state that women qualify as a political interest group
D) to debate whether women have any unique, politically relevant characteristics.
E) to applaud the proponents of the feminist movement
- Which of the following is an important problem confronting women today according to the passage?
A) Women are in a different socioeconomic position from that of men.
B) men differ greatly from women in the answers they propose for women‘s problems.
C) Women do not qualify as an interest group, because they have not all banded together to pursue common goals.
D) a lack of educational opportunities has inhibited women from voicing their concerns
E) Sexual harassment at the workplace
- The author is most concerned about the problem of which of the following issue ?
A) The history of women‘s demands for representation as a group.
B) recent changes in the status of women in society.
C) opposing views concerning women‘s awareness of their own special interests.
D) the criteria that would justify group representation for women.
E) uplifting the status of women in modern society
- Women in almost all countries have less education than men, and where they achieve equivalent levels of education, segregation by field and therefore skills and market value remains. What does the author want to say in this statement?
A) whether women achieve equal qualification or not ; there market value will be same.
B) In countries where women achieve equal education to men ; There is still segregation in jobs and value based on gender.
C) In countries where women achieve equal education to men ; market value of women will be same as men.
D) Women can never be at same level of men ; whether they are equally qualified or not.
E) None of these.
Direction(6-10): Read the following passage and answer the questions that follows.
Paragraph 1 :Five times as many workers may be needed to construct a power plant as to operate it. The numbers may be even more disproportionate for a major pipeline or dam. When the construction ends, a substantial reduction in population is virtually guaranteed. Hence, there may be no justification for providing an infrastructure necessary to maintain adequate levels of service during the construction period.
Paragraph 2 : Money necessary to build water systems, schools and roads and to fund salaries and maintenance costs is mismatched by traditional taxing programs. The construction project is usually not subject to local property tax until it nears completion, which may be five years after the impact has occurred. Alternative sources of tax revenue cannot begin to cover the cost of providing the necessary services. Even if some governments have money, they may not be the right governments. Some entities may suffer the impact of development without being able to tax it. For example, a development may be located in the county just outside the limits of an incorporated city. The county will be entitled to tax the property while the city may receive most of the project population and demand for services.
Paragraph 3 :The 1960s and 1970s witnessed a new boomtown era in the West. The typical contemporary boomtown is fuelled by a quest for energy in the form of a fossil-fuelled electric generating plant, a hydroelectric dam or a new mine. The energy project is typically located near a small community or is forced to start a community from scratch. Often, the boomtown is poorly planned and under-financed. Long-time residents find their community changed for the worse and newcomers find the town an undesirable place to live.
Paragraph 4: The boomtown is characterized by inadequate public services, undesirable labour conditions, confusion in community structure, and deterioration of the quality of life arising from rapid population growth due to a major economic stimulus. Accelerated growth is the most distinguishing characteristic of a boomtown.
Paragraph 5 : Studies have shown that large-scale development in sparsely populated areas causes major social problems. Housing, street and water systems construction, school development and police and fire protection lag far behind population growth. Rent and property tax increases join with a rise in the general cost of living to harm persons on fixed incomes. Education in the community may suffer. One result of boomtown living is higher incidence of divorce, depression, alcoholism and attempted suicide. Until recently, planners have ignored or understated such problems. While the boomtown promotes an “us against them mentality “ the old timers versus persons brought to the community by the boom — the fact remains that all parties suffer. Newcomers may blame old- timers for a lack of support just as old-timers may blame them for deterioration of community life. Consequences of the boomtown also harm the project developer. The undesirable community results in poor worker productivity and frequent worker turnover, factors that delay construction and push projects over budget. Problems of rapid growth in some boomtowns are compounded by the fact that most of the population disappears with the completion of project construction.
- It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following are possible ways in which a boomtown is affected by poor planning and under-financing?
I. Unsatisfactory labour conditions
II. Inadequate police protection
III. Poor community relations
A) II only
B) I and III only
C) II and III only
D) I, II, and III
E) I only
- The tone of the author‘s discussion of traditional taxing programs in regard to boomtowns can best be described as:
- The passage suggests that there is often a lack of services associated with boomtowns. The author claims that all of the following are possible causal factors for the lack of services associated with a boomtown EXCEPT:
A) the expected loss of a substantial number of residents after the completion of a project.
B) lack of support from long-time residents.
C) the location of an energy project just outside the limits of an incorporated city.
D) the time lag between the beginning of project construction and the onset of tax payments for it.
E) the mismatch between funds needed and traditional taxing programs.
- According to the passage; what can be inferred about the boomtowns ?
A) Boomtowns are temporary human establishments .
B) Boomtowns arise on the sites of economic activity and disappear as long as the reason of activity lasts.
C) Both A) and B)
D) Boomtown is a combination of growth and disruptions.
E) All of the above.
- Which of the following is not a characteristic of the boomtown as stated in the passage ?
A) confusion in community structure
B) inadequate public services
C) deterioration of the quality of life arising from diminishing population growth.
D) undesirable labour conditions
E) None of these.