Critical and logical Reasoning – Set 30

Directions: Study the following information and answer the given questions. Statement: In today’s economic crisis only the ideals of limited family and hard labor in the field of education can lead India towards prosperity.

1. Assumptions:
I. Ideals of limited family and hard labor in the field of education are correlated with India’s prosperity.
II. A large family faces difficulty in bearing the expenses on education.

Only assumption I is implicit.
Only assumption II is implicit.
Either assumption I or II is implicit.
Neither assumption I nor II is implicit.
Both the assumptions are implicit.
Option A
Here, if the sentence talks about prosperity of the nation then the assumption is that only the two factors mentioned can lead to prosperity. Hence, assumption I is implicit. But nothing is mentioned about why larger families will be deterrent to prosperity. While it is common sense that a large family faces difficulty in bearing the expenses on education, it is not implicit in the statement given.

2. Statements: Only good dancers are invited to the festival. No one without rhythm can be called a good dancer.
Inferences:
I. All dancers who are invited to the festival have rhythm in their feet.
II The dancers who do not have any rhythm in their feet are not invited to the festival.

Only inference I follows.
Only inference II follows.
Both the inference follow.
None of the inference follow.
Either inference I or II follow.
Option C
The statement implicitly mentions that only ‘good’ dancers are invited to the said event. And the definition of a good dancer is one who has rhythm in his/her feet. Hence inference I immediately follows Also, correspondingly the dancers who are not good by definition are not invited. Hence, inference II also follows. Hence, both the inferences follow.

3. Statements:
I) Economic crisis is hindering development in Russia.
II) There is drop in foreign investment in Russia.

Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect.
Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect.
Both the statements I and II are independent causes.
Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes.
Both the statements I and II are effects of some common causes.
Option E
Statement (I) and (II) are effects of some common cause. Both the statements are talking about Russian economy. In this instance, due to the limitations that Russia is facing because of EU sanctions, Russian economy is facing turmoil, which has led to both statement (I) an (II).

4. Statements:
I. He did not drive down to office today.
II. He took the bus to office.

Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect.
Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect.
Both the statements I and II are independent causes.
Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes.
Both the statements I and II are effects of some common causes.
Option E
These two statements must be the effect of some common cause. His decision to take the bus to office and not drive down could be related to some problem with his car or his decision to save fuel or money.

5. Statement: “During the return journey you can avail the route via Rajkot because it is the shortest one.” – a travel agent said to a couple.
Assumptions:
I. The couple wants to return through the shortest route.
II. The couple does not want to know about length of the route.

Only assumption I is implicit.
Only assumption II is implicit.
Either assumption I or II is implicit.
Neither assumption I nor II is implicit.
Both the assumptions are implicit.
Option A
Assumption I is implicit as the travel agent knows of the route via Rajkot being the shortest one and assumes that the length of the route must be an important factor for the couple in planning their journey, and hence, recommends it to the couple.
Assumption II is not implicit because if the couple does not want to know about the length of the route, the travel agent will never suggest the shortest route. Hence, only assumption I is implicit.

6. Statement: Betty now takes her car for washing on Saturdays instead of Sundays.
Course of Action:
I) Every Saturday Betty will take a leave at work.
II) Betty plans to spend time on other stuff on Sundays.

Only I follows.
Only II follows.
Either I or II follows.
Neither I nor II follows.
Both I and II follow.
Option B
Betty washes her car on Saturdays, but that is not a reason to take a leave from work. So Action I doesn’t follow. Also, if she washes her car on Saturdays then she has some time on Sunday that is free. Thus, it is correct of her to utilize that time on other stuff.

7. Statements:
I. Each month I have had unexpected expenditures.
II. Last month I got a new phone for Rs 5000.

Statement I is the cause and statement II is the effect.
Statement II is the cause and statement I is the effect.
Both the statements I and II are independent causes.
Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes.
Both the statements I and II are effects of some common causes.
Option D
Statement II just mentions that a new phone was bought, it doesn’t say whether it was unexpected or not. So its cause is unknown. Also, the cause of having unexpected expenditures is not known. However, no relation is mention between the two causes. This is because one is about unexpected expenditures and other is about is an expenditure which is already done, but it is not known to be unexpected or expected.

8. Statement: A pen is more powerful than the sword.
Assumptions:
I. Pen is made of metal which is harder than the metal used for making the sword.
II. Mental power is more effective than the physical power.

Only assumption I is implicit.
Only assumption II is implicit.
Either assumption I or II is implicit.
Neither assumption I nor II is implicit.
Both the assumptions are implicit.
Option B
Here, the direct meaning must not be taken. It is assumed that mental power is more effective to physical power and these are compared to the pen and sword respectively because the pen is a tool to write down powerful ideas whereas the sword is a tool to show your physical power

9. Statement: There is an unusual disparity in ratio of men and women in several states of India.
Course of Action:
I) Government should frame policies to expedite female feticide in India.
II) Government should impose strict law against illegal sex determination tests at clinics in India.

Only I follows.
Only II follows.
Either I or II follow.
Neither I nor II follow.
Both I and II follow.
Option B
Here, in the first course of action is stated that the Government must ‘expedite’ which means ‘facilitate’ female feticide. This is clearly an incorrect approach to the problem as it will further widen the difference in the ratio of male and female. On the other hand Action 2 follows, as imposing strict law against sex determination may at some extent create fear among people and reduce female feticide.

10. Statement: Young boys will think many times before asking for admission in colleges if employment is kept apart from Degree.
Assumptions:
I. Girls do not try to seek employment.
II. Degree is not fundamentally correlated with employment.

Only assumption I is implicit.
Only assumption II is implicit.
Either assumption I or II is implicit.
Neither assumption I nor II is implicit.
Both the assumptions are implicit.
Option B
Here, the statement only mentions boys and what girls think is not mentioned so nothing is to be assumed about them. Hence assumption I is not implicit. Since the statement suggests that employment and degree are being kept apart, it can be assumed that it is possible to do so. Thus we can assume that there is no fundamental correlation between degree and employment.So assumption II is implicit.