Critical Reasoning Practice Questions for IBPS PO/Clerk/RRB, PGDBF Exams, RBI Grade B/Assistant, UIICL, OICL, LIC and other competitive exams.
- A fashion designer’s fall line for women utilizing new soft fabrics broke all sales records last year. To capitalize on her success, the designer plans to launch a line of clothing for men this year that makes use of the same new soft fabrics.
The designer’s plan assumes that
A) other designers are not planning to introduce new lines for men utilizing the same soft fabrics(B) men will be as interested in the new soft fabrics as women were the year before
C) the designer will have time to develop new lines for both men and women
D) the line for men will be considered innovative and daring because of its use of fabrics
E) women who bought the new line last year will continue to buy it this year
- Given that employees of the XYZ Company could, in theory, do their work at home, the company developed a radical plan to increase efficiency: eliminate office-space expenditures by having employees work at home.To evaluate this plan, XYZ’s managers asked volunteers from the company’s staff to try the arrangement for six months. There were several volunteers; significantly, their productivity during this period was as high as or higher than before.
Which of the following, if true, would argue most strongly against deciding, on the basis of the trial results, to implement the company’s plan?
A) The employees who agreed to participate in the test of the plan were among the company’s most self-motivated and independent workers.
B) The savings that would accrue from reduced office-space expenditures alone would be sufficient to justify implementation of the plan apart from any productivity increases.
C) Other companies that have achieved successful results from work-at-home plans have work forces that are substantially larger than that of XYZ.
D) The volunteers who worked at home were able to communicate with other employees as necessary for performing the work.
E) Recent changes in the way work is organized at XYZ’s company offices have not brought about any productivity increases.
After its customers complained about being pressured to buy unneeded insurance, an insurance agency stopped rewarding its agents for high sales volume and instead gave them bonuses for high levels of customer satisfaction. Under this new plan, both customer satisfaction and the insurance agency’s sales increased.
Each of the following, if true, helps to explain how the change in incentives for agents could have resulted in increased sales EXCEPT:
A) Customers were so pleased that the insurance agency had responded to their complaints that they recommended the agency to their friends.
B) Agents listened more closely to customers of long standing and were able to sell them additional insurance policies that met new needs.
C) Agents more frequently postponed completing the attendant paperwork even after the terms for an insurance policy were settled to the satisfaction of the client.
D) Dissatisfied customers of other agencies, attracted by the reports of the change in agency policy, became customers of the agency.
E) Having come to trust the increased judiciousness of the agents’ recommendations, customers approached the agency to discuss and ultimately to buy more supplementary insurance than they previously had bought under pressure.
Consumers planning to buy recreational equipment tend to buy higher quality, more expensive equipment when the economy is strong than when it is weak. Hill and Dale is a business that sells high-quality, expensive camping and hiking equipment in Boravia. Although all the signs are that Boravia’s economy is now entering a period of sustained strength, the managers of the business do not expect a substantial increase in sales.
Which of the following, if true, would provide the strongest justification for the managers’ judgment?
A) A significant proportion of Hill and Dale’s sales are made to customers who enter the store in order to buy one particular item but, once there, find other items to buy as well.
B) In Boravia when the economy is strong, those who might otherwise go camping tend to take vacations overseas.
C) The economic upturn is likely to allow Boravia’s national parks, where most of the camping and hiking is
done, to receive extra funding to improve their visitor facilities.
D) Advances in materials technology have led to the development of hiking and camping equipment that is more comfortable and lightweight than before.
E) Many people in Boravia not only are committed to preserving the country’s wilderness areas but also are interested in spending some time in them.
Highway Official: When resurfacing our concrete bridges, we should use electrically conductive concrete (ECC) rather than standard concrete. In the winter, ECC can be heated by passing an electric current through it, thereby preventing ice buildup. The cost of the electricity needed is substantially lower than the cost of the de-icing salt we currently use.
Taxpayer: But construction costs for ECC are much higher than for standard concrete, so your proposal is probably not justifiable on economic grounds.
Which of the following, if true, could best be used to support the highway official’s proposal in the face of taxpayer’s objection?
A) The use of de-icing salt causes corrosion of the reinforcing steel in concrete bridge decks and damage to the concrete itself, thereby considerably shortening the useful life of concrete bridges.
B) Severe icing conditions can cause power outages and slow down the work of emergency crews trying to get power restored.
C) In weather conditions conducive to icing, ice generally forms on the concrete surfaces of bridges well before it forms on parts of the roadway that go over solid ground.
D) Aside from its potential use for de-icing bridges, ECC might also be an effective means of keeping other concrete structures such as parking garages and airport runways ice free.
E) If ECC were to be used for a bridge surface, the electric current would be turned on only at times at which ice was likely to form.
- Country Casa’s lakes have been experiencing a constant deterioration in water quality due to too many visitors. Therefore, Casa has decided that the best way to save its lakes is by charging an extra fee to users of the lakes.
Which of the following is an assumption underlying the conclusion?
A) Changing global temperatures has been shown to be mostly responsible for the lakes’ deterioration.
B) It is clear that charging higher fees will not be enough to stop the destruction of the lakes.
C) The level of the lakes in Country Casa has fallen by 20 centimeters per year over the last decade.
D) Camping at the lakes has never been prohibited.
E) Higher fees would actually deter a significant amount of people from visiting the lakes.
- Installing scrubbers in smokestacks and switching to cleaner-burning fuel are the two methods available to Northern Power for reducing harmful emissions from its plants. Scrubbers will reduce harmful emissions more than cleaner-burning fuels will. Therefore, by installing scrubbers, Northern Power will be doing the most that can be done to reduce harmful emissions from its plants.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A) Switching to cleaner-burning fuel will not be more expensive than installing scrubbers.
B) Northern Power can choose from among various Kinds of scrubbers, some of which are more effective than others.
C) Northern Power is not necessarily committed to reducing harmful emissions from its plants.
D) Harmful emissions from Northern Power’s plants cannot be reduced more by using both methods together than by the installation of scrubbers alone.
E) Aside from harmful emissions from the smokestacks of its plants, the activities of Northern Power do not cause significant air pollution
To reduce the danger to life and property posed by major earthquakes, scientists have been investigating several techniques for giving advance warning of dangerous earthquakes. Since catfish swim erratically before earthquakes, some investigators have proposed monitoring catfish to predict dangerous earthquakes.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the usefulness of the proposal?
A) In Japan, which is subject to frequent earthquakes, the behavior of catfish has long been associated with earthquakes.
B) Mechanical methods for detecting earthquakes have not proved effective.
C) Tremors lead to the release of hydrogen sulfide gas into water, thereby causing various fish and shellfish to behave erratically.
D) Careful construction can reduce the dangers posed by earthquakes.
E) Even very slight, fleeting tremors cause catfish to swim erratically
Children of alcoholics are much more likely to become alcoholics than are children of nonalcoholics. The likelihood varies depending on which parent is alcoholic and is much greater if both are alcoholic. This pattern holds true even if children are separated from their alcoholic parent[s] at birth.
Which of the following conclusions can most reliably be drawn from the statements above?
A) Children of nonalcoholics do not become alcoholics.
B) Fathers influence their children’s alcoholic tendencies more than mothers do.
C) A tendency toward alcoholism can be at least partially determined by genetics.
D) Environment has little influence on alcoholism.
E) Because it is inherited, alcoholism is difficult to treat.
Half of the subjects in an experiment—the experimental group—consumed large quantities of a popular artificial sweetener. Afterward, this group showed lower cognitive abilities than did the other half of the subjects—the control group—who did not consume the sweetener. The detrimental effects were attributed to an amino acid that is one of the sweetener’s principal constituents.
Which of the following, if true, would best support the conclusion that some ingredient of the sweetener was responsible for the experimental results?
A) Most consumers of the sweetener do not consume as much of it as the experimental group members did.
B) The amino acid referred to in the conclusion is a component of all proteins, some of which must be consumed for adequate nutrition.
C) The quantity of the sweetener consumed by individuals in the experimental group is considered safe by federal food regulators.
D) The two groups of subjects were evenly matched with regard to cognitive abilities prior to the experiment.
E) A second experiment in which subjects consumed large quantities of the sweetener lacked a control group of subjects who were not given the sweetener.